Volume 3 Issue 9- September 2013


S.No Title Page
1. Event Region Refinement in A Grid-Based Wireless Sensor Network using Repeated Spatial Interpolation
Sanu Thomas and Thomaskutty Mathew

A new method to refine the event region in a grid-based WSN is presented. The proposed method determines the fine-grained event region from its coarse-grained version using repeated spatial interpolation.
Keywords—Coarse-grained event region, fine-grained event region, inverse distance weighting, spatial interpolation, wireless sensor network,

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2. A Novel Algorithm to Find Number of Steps and Time of Human Gait Cycle
Anas A. Al-Sumaily

Human gait cycle is one of newest biometrics that depend on the way of walking of person. Gait cycle could be measure by many methods for example putting flag or pointer that have value equal one when legs cross and zero in otherwise. In this paper, new algorithm proposed to measure number of steps and time of gait cycle. This algorithm work on binary images, which contents black and white pixels only (without gradual). Also, the work in this paper was built based on Sobel edge detection results that come after apply Moving Target Indicator (MTI) principles on the original image.

Keywords Gait Cycle, Moving Target Indicator, Gait Time, number of Steps, Peaks Filter Algorithm and Peaks Filter Modify Algorithm.

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3. A Review of APTEEN in Wireless Sensor Networks
Ravindranath Vadlamudi, Dr Syed Umar

Wireless sensor networks with thousands of tiny sensornodes, are expected to find wide applicability and increasing deployment in coming years, as they enable reliable monitoring and analysis of the environment. In this paper, we propose a hybrid routing protocol (APTEEN) which allows for comprehensive information retrieval. The nodes in such a network not only react to time-critical situations, but also give an overall picture of the network at periodic intervals in a very energy efficient manner. Such a network enables the user to request past, present and future data from the network in the form of historical, one-time and persistent queries respectively. We evaluated the performance of these protocols and observe that these protocols are observed to outperform existing protocols in terms of energy consumption and longevity of the network.

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4. A Study on Scalable Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks
G.V.Sai Aravind , Dr Syed Umar

The growing interest in Mobile Ad Hoc Network techniques has resulted in many routing protocol proposals. Scalability issues in ad hoc networks are attracting increasing attention these days. In this paper, we will survey the routing protocols that address scalability. The routing protocols we intend to include in the survey fall into three categories: (1) flat routing protocols, (2) hierarchical routing approaches, and (3) GPS augmented geographical routing schemes. The paper will compare the scalability properties and operational features of the protocols and will discuss challenges in future routing protocol designs.
Keywords— Mobile ad hoc networks, ad hoc routing, scalable routing, scalability, proactive routing, on-demand routing, hierarchical ad hoc routing, geographic position assisted routing.

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5. Secured Communication for MANETS in Military
N.Angayarkanni , P. Palaniyammal

A new way to increase the security   of data transmission   of   mobile   ad   hoc   networks   [MANETS]   is presented in this work.  There is a massive increase in using MANETS for unmanned army system for both surveillance and   future combat operations.  This has necessitated   the development of innovative MANET solutions catering to the reliability,   security   and   scalability   needs   of   the   defense communications environment. Security and reliability are crucial aspects of MANET, especially in security sensitive applications   like   military.   Secure   Message   Transmission SMT[1]  protocol  secure   the   data  transmission   phase  by tailoring an end-to-end secure data forwarding protocol to the MANET   communication   requirements   and   increases   the reliability through transmitting the messages in multiple paths with minimal redundancy. This work increases the through the removal of Byzantine Faults in the multiple paths. A binary search probing technique which is resilient to   Byzantine failures    caused    by    individual    or    colluding    nodes    is incorporated in the SMT protocol to provide more secured transmission. The fault detection algorithm bounds logarithmically (log n –n the number of nodes in the path), so the delay is reduced drastically. The simulated implementation of the work in NS2   shows the marginal increase in the throughput. The delay and jitter variants can also be improved if the nodes location can be predicted. Predicting the nodes location and reducing the unnecessary traffic with the aid of Spatial and Temporal mining is the second phase of this work.
Keywords- Mobile Ad Hoc Networks; Military;  Byzantine Faults; Secure               Transmission;       SMT-                 Secure    Message Transmission;   Multipath    Message   Transmission,   Binary Search  Probing;  Reliability;   Spatial and Temporal Mining, Location Prediction.

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6. A Study on Pollution Monitoring system in Wireless Sensor Networks
D.Yaswanth,Dr Syed Umar

Air pollution is one of environmental issues that cannot be ignored. The heavy transportation and urbanization result in the air pollutants concentrated in certain areas. Inhaling pollutants for a long time causes damages in human health. Traditional air quality monitoring methods, such as building air quality monitoring stations, are typically expensive. In addition, monitoring stations are generally less densely deployed and provide low resolution sensing data. This paper proposes an urbanair quality monitoring system based on the technology of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). It also integrates with the global system for mobile communications (GSM). The system consists of sensor nodes, a gateway, and a control center managed by the LabVIEW program through which sensing data can be stored in a database. This system is deployed to the main roads in the Taipei city to monitor the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration caused by vehicle emissions. The experimental results show that the proposed system is suitable for micro-scale air quality monitoring in real-time through the WSN technology.
Keywords—air quality monitoring; wireless sensor networks; real-time monitoring.

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7. Study on Efficient Authentication Protocol with User Anonymity for Wireless Networks
Nikita Padmanabhuni, Mylavarapu.Prasanna, Vangala Himaja

In this paper, a new anonymous authentication protocol based on anonymous proxy signature for wireless Communications is proposed. The protocol involves only two parties including mobile user and visited server, without the participation of home server. Then the security and performance of the protocol are analyzed and compared with existing protocols. It is shown that the proposed protocol is efficient and power-saving with low time delay, which is appropriate for practical application.
Keywords— Authentication; Anonymity; Proxy signature; Key Exchange.

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8. SAR Simulation in Human Head Exposed to RF Signals and Safety Precautions
Sahar Aqeel Abdulrazzaq, Dr. Jabir S. Aziz

As the number of mobile phone users is increasing rapidly, it has become main concern to focus on the effect of radio frequency electromagnetic radiations produced by mobile phone. At communication frequency, human body behaves as a dielectric and the EM radiation generated by mobile phone are able to penetrate through semisolid substances like living tissues and meat etc. The EM radiation is called the fourth pollution source besides air, water and noise by the environmentalists. And that how to protect against it and calculate it grows to a primary problem. In this paper, the maximum Specific absorption rate (SAR) averaged over 1g and 10g of tissue inside homogenous human head model has been investigated for dual-band PIFA antenna operating in the 900 MHz and 1800 MHz frequency bands. The human head model consists of a uniform core representing human brain, surrounded by shell representing head skull and skin. All Simulations are performed using CST-Microwave studio. The provided antenna is re-optimized in the presence of head and hand because the provided antenna has a very bad performance. SAR is obtained at various distances between the head and mobile and at various input powers with and without the proposed shield. It is shown that SAR decreases as the distance between the head and the mobile phone increases. The calculated maximum average SAR values in the head are compared with SAR limits in the safety standards of the International organizations. The maximum local SAR becomes more than the FCC and ICNIRP’s upper safety limits for high input powers. SAR reduction issue is considered in this paper also. Reducing SAR in the head model is effectively achieved by attaching the suggested shield on a mobile phone. The designed shield is made from ferrite and aluminum material.  The results revealed that the use of  the proposed shield will reduce effectively the SAR value averaged over 1g and 10g of tissues by 53.68% and 63.8% respectively for 900MHZ band and will reduce the SAR averaged over 1g and 10g of tissues by 63.72% and 61.03% for 1800MHZ.

Keywords— SAR, SRF, Mobile phone, RF shield, SAR Distribution.

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9. A Study on High Data Rate WLAN
Sampath Grandhi, Dr Syed Umar ,Venkatesh Prasad Kalluri

The demands on WLANs for functionality and scalability are growing due to the rapid proliferation of new network devices and applications. Wired communication networks can provide the connectivity and performance but not mobility. WLAN provides the solution for portability with connection of mobility as well as performance. The increased demands for mobility and flexibility in our daily life are demands that lead the development from wired LANs to wireless LANs (WLANs). A wireless LAN is based on a cellular architecture where the system is subdivided into cells, where each cell (called Base service Set or BSS) is controlled by a Base station (called Access point or AP). This paper considers the problem of providing gbps user data-rate in indoor environments. To upgrade the data rate of WLANs, the IEEE presented the IEEE 802.11g standard for providing higher data rates up to 54 Mbps at the 2.4 GHz frequency band. In this paper, performance of IEEE 802.11g standard is described with respect to WLANs.

Keywords— Bandwidth, Security, WLAN, WLAN Standards, AP.

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10. A Review of Storage Resource Management in Data Grids
Pasam Bhanu Teja

This Storage Resource Managers (SRMs) are middleware components whose function is to provide dynamic space allocation and file management of shared storage components on the Grid. They complement Compute Resource Managers and Network Resource Managers in providing storage reservation and dynamic information on storage availability for the planning and execution of a Grid job. SRMs manage two types of resources: space and files. When managing space, SRMs negotiate space allocation with the requesting client, and/or assign default space quotas. When managing files, SRMs allocate space for files, invoke file transfer services to move files into the space, pin files for a certain lifetime, release files upon the clients request, and use file replacement policies to optimize the use of the shared space. SRMs can be designed to provide effective sharing of files, by monitoring the activity of shared files, and make dynamic decisions on which files to replace when space is needed. In addition, SRMs perform automatic garbage collection of unused files by removing selected files whose lifetime has expired when space is needed. In this chapter we discuss the design considerations for SRMs, their functionality, and their interfaces. We demonstrate the use of SRMs with several examples of real implementations that are in use today in a routine fashion or in a prototype form. security
Keywords— storage resources, Data Grid, storage elements, storage management.

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