Volume 2 Issue 1- January 2012


S.No Title Page
1. Encryption, Decryption and Error Detection using Finite State Transducers and their Inverses
Bhaskara Rao N

In this paper, we define the Inverse of a Finite State Transducer. The inverse and the corresponding Finite State Transducer are used for encryption and decryption of sequential data. The encryption process is designed for error detection capability during the decryption phase.

Keywords-error detectiont capability;finite state transducer; Translational inverse;

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2. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: A Comparative Study of QoS Routing Protocols
Sanjeev Gangwar, Saurabh Pal , Krishnan Kumar

This Article presents a thorough overview of QoS routing metrics, resources and factors affecting performance of QoS routing protocols. The relative strength, weakness, and applicability of existing QoS routing protocols are also studied and compared. QoS routing protocols are classified according to the QoS metrics used type of QoS guarantee assured. 
MANETs, Quality of Service, Routing protocol, mobile node.

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3. Image Segmentation by using Histogram Thresholding
P.Daniel Ratna Raju G.Neelima

Segmentation refers to the process of partitioning a digital image into the multiple segments(set of pixels as known as super pixels) the goal of segmentation is to simplify and or change the representation of an image into something that is more meaningful and easier to analyze. Development of an accurate image segmentation algorithm can be most demanding part of a computer vision system their is not a panacean method that can be work with several different types of images in the segmentation approach is usually designed for solving a specific problem.
In this work, histogram thresholding is proposed in order to help the segmentation step in what was found to be robust way regardless of the segmentation approach used semi atomic algorithm for histogram thresholding are discussed. Examples using different histogram thresholding Methods are shown.

Keywords: Image segmentation, Histogram Thresholding, Methods in Histogram Thresholding, Thresholding foundation

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4. Face Detection using SMQT Techniques
Amol kawade, Ishan Bhaskarwar, Yashodhan Joshi, Anurag Bansal

This paper focuses on an extension to the Snow classifier, the split up Snow, for the chosen classification task. The study comprises of a threefold plan: firstly, the local Successive Mean Quantization Transform (SMQT) features are proposed for illumination and sensor insensitive operation in object recognition. Secondly, a split up Sparse Network of Winnows (Snow) is presented to speed up the original classifier. Finally, the features and classifier are combined for the task of frontal face detection. Detection results are presented for the MIT+CMU and the BioID databases. With regard to the face detector, the Receiver Operation Characteristics curve for the BioID database yields the significant outcome.

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5. Tracking Multiple Objects in Wireless Sensor Networks
B. Sunil Kumar & P. Suman Prakash

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) depends on the algorithms and protocols for Communication and computation. In this paper, we implement sensors that sense the environment actively by emitting energy and measuring the reflected energy, a novel collaborative sensing scheme is used to sense multiple targets and high maneuvering targets in an energy efficient method. Joint sensing   can increase the sensing      region    of   an    individual emitting sensor and generate multiple sensor measurements simultaneously. In order to conserve energy the sensors is used to estimate the target state using sensor measurements and to predict the target location and hence the tracking accuracy, as compared to individual sensing. Multiple and high maneuvering targets are identified with energy efficient.

Index Terms—quality of information; target tracking; joint sensing; sensor scheduling; Kalman filter


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6. Performance Evaluation of Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols with NS2
Rakhi Purohit, Hari Singh Choudhary, Vikas Choudhary

Ad-hoc networks consist of various decentralized nodes without any support of central administration and have no any physical links and not follow particular topology due to the behaviour of node with frequent mobility of nodes. Protocol suite of this network consists of various routing protocols which are specifically designed mobile nodes. Each node in network moves randomly at unpredictable times. The motto behind this work is to getting the detailed understanding of ad hoc routing protocols, analyzing the performance differentials of routing protocols. The Ad Hoc routing protocols can be proactive, reactive or hybrid. This paper presents a performance comparison of proactive and reactive protocols based on two performance matrices network throughput and packet delivery ratio using the NS-2 simulator as a simulation environment.

Keywords- Ad hoc Routing Protocols,  Performance Evaluation, Routing, Ad hoc Networks, Protocols, NS2, Simulation.

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7. A Role of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Security and Privacy Issues of Social Networking
A. A. Sattikar, Dr. R. V. Kulkarni

The phenomenon of online social networking has evolved to include more than the teenage stereotype looking to expand his/her network of online friends. People of all ages and backgrounds have discovered that they can enrich their lives through the contacts they make on a social networking website. The social networks must progress to make the user's life easier with the aim of providing security and privacy in their day to day routine. The integration of AI techniques to solve current problems is a help to achieve intelligent environments offering adaptive behaviors depending on the user's intentions. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is one of the computer science areas with more expectation created in the last years. AI is a scientific discipline which tries to operationalise human intellectual and cognitive capabilities in order to make them available through information processing systems. Nowadays, many security and privacy problems cannot be optimally solved due to their complexity. In these situations, artificial intelligence has proven to be extremely useful and well-fitted to solve these problems. Artificial neural networks, evolutionary computation, clustering, fuzzy sets, multi-agent systems, data mining and pattern recognition are just a few examples of artificial intelligence techniques that can be successfully used to solve some relevant privacy and security problems.
Keywords— SMTP, NLP, GA, IDS, RBS.

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8. A RSemantics-Based Approach for Speech Annotation of Images
HarishBabu. Kalidasu, B. Prasanna Kumar, K. PurnaPrakash

The Associating textual annotations/tags with multimedia content is among the most effective approaches to organize and to support search over digital images and multimedia databases. Despite advances in multimedia analysis, effective tagging remains largely a manual process wherein users add descriptive tags by hand, usually when uploading or browsing the collection, much after the pictures have been taken. This approach, however, is not convenient in all situations or for many applications, e.g., when users would like to publish and share pictures with others in real time. An alternate approach is to instead utilize a speech interface using which users may specify image tags that can be transcribed into textual annotations by employing  automated speech recognizers. Such a speech-based approach has all the benefits of human tagging without the cumbersomeness and impracticality typically associated with human tagging in real time. The key challenge in such an approach is the potential low recognition quality of the state- of-the-art recognizers, especially, in noisy environments. In this paper, we explore how semantic knowledge in the form of co- occurrence between image tags can be exploited to boost the quality of speech recognition. We postulate the problem of speech annotation as that of disambiguating among multiple alternatives offered by the recognizer. An empirical evaluation has been conducted over both real speech recognizer’s output as well as synthetic data sets. The results demonstrate significant advantages of the proposed approach compared to the recognizer’s output under varying conditions.

Keywords—Using speech for tagging and annotation, using semantics to improve ASR, maximum entropy approach, correlation- based approach, branch and bound algorithm.

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9. Proactive Approach: Proactive security is based on threshold and key refreshment is performed By different cryptography function
Rashmi Singh,Minu Choudahry

The security of public key cryptosystems relies heavily on the secrecy of the private key. Thus such cryptosystems should be augmented with methods for protecting the secret key while providing continuous availability of the system. A naive solution may be to share the private key using a proactive secret sharing scheme. This solution provides the necessary protection as long as the key is not used. However, in order to generate a signature the private key would need to be reconstructed in a single site, thus losing the advantage of distribution: A single break-in to this site will compromise the security. Instead, a proactive threshold signature scheme allows the servers to individually generate valid signatures in a special way that prevents an attacker from generating fake signatures. In particular, the scheme makes sure that the key is never reconstructed at a single site.
Refreshment of key is based on threshold value. Each node which is participated in the network, generates random number if the random number is match on threshold then key is not refreshed otherwise it will be refreshed.
In this paper, we have developed different function for key refreshment but key refreshment is depending on threshold.

Keywords— Proactive Security, Threshold, Key Refreshment, Cryptography Function
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10. A New Approach To Maintain Privacy And Accuracy In Classification Data Mining
G.Rama Krishna, G.V.Ajaresh, I.Jaya Kumar Naik, Parshu Ram Dhungyel, D.Karuna Prasad

Privacy preserving classified data mining is one of the latest technical fields of data mining in recent years. Transforming the original data in order to maintain accuracy if we apply classification mining on original and transformed data is the key point of the privacy preservation. This paper proposes a privacy preserving method based on the random perturbation matrix. This method is suitable to the data of the character type, the Boolean type, the hierarchical type etc.
Key words - privacy preservation, decision tree; Random perturbation matrix, privacy breaches

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11. Text Pre-processing and Text Segmentation for OCR
Archana A. Shinde, D.G.Chougule

Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems have been effectively developed for the recognition of printed script. The accuracy of OCR system mainly depends on the text preprocessing and segmentation algorithm being used. When the document is scanned it can be placed in any arbitrary angle which would appear on the computer monitor at the same angle.   This paper addresses the algorithm for correction of skew angle generated in scanning of the text document and a novel profile based method for segmentation of printed text which separates the text in document image into lines, words and characters.
KeywordsSkew correction, Segmentation, Text preprocessing, Horizontal Profile, Vertical Profile.

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12. Prediction based Vertical Handoff Decision Algorithm in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks
S.Aghalya,, P.Seethalakshmi

Next  generation wireless communications will integrate multiple wireless access networks. Vertical handoff plays an important role in heterogeneous networks. In this paper, a  prediction based vertical handoff decision algorithm has been proposed based on mobility. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) predictor has been utilized in this algorithm that can accurately estimate the next location to be visited by a mobile user, given a current and historical movement information. Each Base station (BS) calculates a combined weight value based on current Network Load , Received Signal Strength (RSS) and Power consumption of using the network access device. The home BS then selects an optimum attachment point for the Mobile station (MS) to perform handover, based on the sorted weight values. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been verified by carrying out simulations. The results show that the proposed algorithm achieves 78.5% reduction in packet loss compared to Dynamic Decision Model (DDM). The increase in throughput is about 62.5 % compared to DDM.
Keywords: Heterogeneous network, Vertical Handoff, Handoff Decision, Hidden Markov Model.

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13. Probing Agent Based Anomaly Solving Strategies for Dynamic Distributed Scheduling in RAilway Transportation
M.Hema Madhuri, Divya Vadlamudi, Movva N.V. Kiran Babu, Bollimuntha.Kishore Babu.

The agent computing paradigm is rapidly emerging as one of the powerful technologies for the development of large scale distributed systems to deal with the uncertainty in a dynamic environment.  Railway dispatching or scheduling has been usually modeled using classical technologies, such as operations research and constraint programming. But these strategies are suitable to provide static solutions where the information is complete, but they are not suitable for dynamic environment for distributed scheduling. In order to cope up with dynamic environment, several problem solving strategies have been proposed based on agent technology. In this paper, we first investigate the problems in agent based systems for railway transportation. Finally we explore different agent based problem solving strategies for dynamic scheduling in railway transportation.
Key words-agent, agent technology,mobileagent, net manager

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14. An Approach of Cryptography for Web User Authentication using Secure Remote Password Protocol
Revati Raman Dewangan, Vivek Parganiha, Deepali Thombre.

This research paper describes generation of a crypt key for user of web application using SRP techniques for the purpose of secure authentication in web. A numbers of web sites offer different kinds of users in world wide to access web application using unique user name and corresponding a password for securing them to others, even though they are now hacked by professional hackers. To avoid this kind of hacking of user’s accounts; our approach is to provide a secure cryptography key using the techniques SRP (SRP-6) along with their username and password. This key will be unique for a particular user. Whenever user attempts to login the web application a new unique key will be generated by the application in each an every single attempt then the newly generated key will be validated by server side.
In many web applications, it is desirable to have users log in by giving some unique login name and a password before accessing pages. There are many ways to implement this, each with different advantages and disadvantages. The considerations involved are complex enough and the majority of authentication systems in use on the web today have at least some fixable security weaknesses. There are two standard authentication systems which are described in the HTTP protocol documents: "basic authentication" which is supported by most browsers and HTTP servers, and "digest authentication" which isn't. The Secure Remote Password (SRP) protocol is an implementation of a public key exchange handshake described in the Internet standards working group request for comments 2945(RFC2945). This mechanism is suitable for negotiating secure connections using a user-supplied password, while eliminating the security problems traditionally associated with reusable passwords. This system also performs a secure key exchange in the process of authentication, allowing security layers (privacy and/or integrity protection) to be enabled during the session. Trusted key servers and certificate infrastructures are not required, and clients are not required to store or manage any long-term keys.

Index Terms— Web Application authentication, RFC2945, HTTP server, Secure Remote Password (SRP) protocol, integrity protection.

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15. Evaluation of Handover Process in WIMAX Networks
Firas Abdullah Thweny Al-Saedi, Wafa A. Maddallah

Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAX) is a technology based on IEEE 802.16 standards. WIMAX is to be used as the solution for the last mile access for both fixed and mobility applications (mobile users). IEEE 802.16 standard was developed to deliver Non Line of Site (NLOS) connectivity between a Subscriber Station (SS) and the Base Station (BS) with a typical cell radius of three to ten kilometers. Mobile communication is increasingly oriented towards the usage of all Internet Protocol (IP) networks. Mobile IP technology is one of the important supporting technical in the construction of pervasive computing environment. This paper is a study of several scenarios of the WIMAX mobility and scanning procedure using OPNET IPv4 model for an available channel by a mobile station. Mobile handover (HO) with vector and random direction of movement with different speed of vector direction were studied. The effect of different parameters, applications, movement, multiple BS's were taking into consideration. WIMAX mobility allows Mobile Node (MN) to remain reachable while moving around in the Internet and the scanning procedure is used to determine if it could acquire a connection with a more suitable BS. 
Keywords - Handover, WIMAX, Mobile WIMAX, Mobile IP,  Mobile Node, Subscriber Station.

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16. Flexural Behaviour of Composite High Strength Concrete – Fibre Reinforced Polymer Beams
R.S.Ravichandran, K. Suguna, P.N. Raghunath

This paper presents the results of an experimental study conducted to examine  the effectiveness of Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) laminates in enhancing the flexural capacity of  high strength concrete beams. In this study, a total of ten beams of size 150 mm x 250 mm in cross-section with a total length of 3000 mm were cast and tested. Eight beams were strengthened with chopped strand mat glass fibre reinforced polymer and uni-directional cloth glass fibre reinforced polymer of 3mm and 5mm thickness. The study parameters included the reinforcement ratio, GFRP laminate material and their thickness. All the beam specimens were subjected to four-point bending test in a loading frame. Deflection and strain measurements have been made through appropriate instrumentation. The results show that the GFRP strengthened beams exhibit increased strength, flexural stiffness and composite action  until failure.
Keywords— GFRP, HSC beams, laminates, strengthened

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17. Confinement of High Strength Concrete (HSC) Columns with Fibre Reinforced Polymer Wraps
Jagannathan Saravanan, Kannan Suguna ,Pulipaka Narasimha Rao Raghunath

This paper presents the results of an experimental study on high strength concrete columns with external GFRP wraps. A total of seven specimens of 150 mm diameter and 300 mm height were cast and tested. One specimen was used as reference and the remaining six specimens were wrapped with three GFRP materials having different thickness. The columns were tested under uni-axial compression up to failure. Necessary measurements were taken for each load increment. The HSC columns with GFRP wrapping exhibited improved performance in terms of strength, deformation, ductility and energy absorption.

Keywords— Ductility, Energy absorption, GFRP, High strength concrete,

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18. IRIS Recognition and Identification System
P. Madhavi Latha, J.Ravi ,Y Sangeetha

A biometric system uniquely identies and authenticates humans based on their physical or behavioral features. Iris recognition is one of the most reliable methods of biometric authentication that recognizes a person by pattern of the iris. No two irises are alike - not between identical twins, or even between the left and right eye of the same person. The bit information or biometric template is used to compare and identify the authenticated or impostor users. Iris recognition algorithms also need to isolate and exclude the artifacts as well as locate the circular iris region from the acquired eye image. Artifacts in iris include eyelids and eyelashes partially covering it. Then, the extracted iris region needs to be normalized. The normalization process will unwrap the doughnut shaped extracted irises into a constant dimensional rectangle. The significant features of the normalized iris must be encoded so that comparisons between templates can be made. Our system makes use of a 1D Log-Gabor Filter to create a bitwise biometric template. Finally, templates are matched using Hamming distance.

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