Volume 4 Issue 2- February 2014


S.No Title Page
1. Earthquake Evaluation of Concrete Buildings Using Low Power Wireless Sensor Networks

Analysis of the stability of the building is a needed measurement process for all buildings in the cities. Periodic monitoring of the structure for such damage is therefore a key step in rationally planning of safety and serviceability. However, in order for the installation of a permanently installed sensing system in buildings to be economically viable, the sensor modules must be wireless to reduce installation costs, must operate with a low power consumption to reduce servicing costs of replacing batteries, and use low costs sensors that can be mass produced such as MEMS sensors. . The strain sensors are mounted at the base of the building to measure the settlement and plastic hinge activation of the building after an earthquake. They measure periodically or on-demand from the base station.  The accelerometers are mounted at every floor of the building to measure the seismic response of the building during an earthquake.  They record during an earthquake event using a combination of the local acceleration data and remote triggering from the base station based on the acceleration data from multiple sensors across the building. Low power network architecture was implemented over an 802.15.4 MAC in the 900-MHz band. A custom patch antenna was designed in this frequency band to obtain robust links in real-world conditions. The modules have been validated in a full-scale laboratory setup with simulated earthquakes.

Keywords - 3-D acceleration sensors, Microelectromechanical   systems    (MEMS), remote monitoring, structural health monitoring, wireless sensor networks.

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2. Real-time and Reliable Video Transport Protocol (RRVTP) for Visual Wireless Sensor Networks (VSNs)
Dr. Mohammed Ahmed Abdala , Mustafa Hussein Jabbar

Recent progress of Visual Sensor Networks (VSNs) has been resulted from great development in cameras techniques that has been enabled the development of single chip camera modules that could easily be embedded into inexpensive transceivers. The interconnection of multimedia sources with inexpensive communication devices has enhanced research in the networking of visual sensors. Due to the large size of the multimedia that captures by visual sensor node, video streams require high bandwidth for a multi-hop wireless environment. So the main two factors influencing in design of transport protocol for visual sensor network are reliability and real time.
This paper proposes Reliable Real Time Video Transport Protocol (RRVTP) that attempts to solve the reliability and real-time problems by sending captured video in real-time and guarantees the delivery of all corrupted/dropped frames for reliable storage (playback).

Keywords— bandwidth, multi-hop, transport protocol, reliability, real-time and playback.

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3. Improvement of AODV Routing Protocol Algorithm with Link Stability and Energy Efficient Routing for MANET
Devideen ahirwar, Sarvesh Singh Rai

A major challenge that lies in MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Network) communication is the unlimited mobility and more frequent failures due to link breakage. Conventional routing algorithms are insufficient for Ad-hoc networks. Because major problem MANETs is limited power supply, dynamic networking. But our proposed protocol methods provided by link stability, minimizing the overhead, maintaining the route reliability & improve the link utilization, low delay, less packet drops and improve throughput. We propose a stable AODV routing protocol where node stability is more in comparison with the previous methods like probability based approach where each node broadcast the message that is received for the first time with some fixed probability p and counter based approach, cluster based approach and other approaches like Distance based approach and location based approach. In concerned the energy consumption of nodes of the network. Here we proposed an algorithm by which we save energy of each participating nodes. So the links of the network and between the nodes are more stable. For an infrastructure less ad-hoc network. Our Stability is based on the link stability by increasing the node lifetime by finding the discard limit of each node in the network and we also studied about various overheads in AODV like link breakage, network scalability, packet flooding ratio, network capacity and link and node capabilities etc. We demonstrate, through extensive simulations in NS-2, that the increased route stability afforded by stable AODV leads to substantially better performance. Here we used algorithm which saves the energy of each node of topology while simulating AODV. And find the discard limit of each node in the network .Our results show that under a variety of applicable network loads and network settings, our protocol achieves better packet delivery ratio and less routing overhead in compression with old routing overhead algorithms. Here we increase the energy efficiency of our network and the energy consumption of network is less after applying our proposed algorithm. And our Network gets more stable.
Keywords: MANETs, Routing Protocol, Energy efficiency, Stability, AODV, Flooding.

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4. Enhancement Image Quality of CT Using Single Slice Spiral Technique
Doaa. N. Al Sheack and Dr.Mohammed H. Ali Al Hayani

Today, CT is one of the most important methods of radiological diagnosis. It delivers non-superimposed cross-sectional images of the body, which can show smaller contrast differences than conventional X-ray images.
Single slice spiral technique is widely used in the equipment of medical application, the first spiral CT scanner was a Siemens SOMATOM Plus system. Many techniques have emerged as possible alternative to exact analytical solution including Filtered Back-Projection (FBP) algorithms. The Measurement of image quality is of great importance in the field of medical image applications such as X-ray tomography. In this paper, comparison of reconstruction FBP (analytical) with respect to the reconstructed image quality is presented using different types of window. Projections calculated using single slice spiral technique in FBP algorithm and applying common filters and proposed filter to get high quality and fast implementation of the reconstructed image.

Index Terms —Filtered back projection algorithm (FBP), Computerized Tomography (CT), Fan beam, Single slice spiral.

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