Volume 1 Issue 7- August 2011


S.No Title Page
1. Quality of Service for Wireless Mobile AD-HOC Networks
The quality of service in MANET has been improved with the incorporation of a new Adhoc QoS Multicasting (AQM) algorithm. Also, a cross layer frame work is proposed and evaluated for delivering the data effectively. The distributed admission control at every intermediate node is used for avoiding the interaction between nodes, also admission control prevents new destinations to join multicast group if there are no QoS requirements. An ad hoc QoS multicasting (AQM) is compared to a non-QoS scheme with regard to session efficiency. By applying QoS restrictions to the ad hoc network, better satisfaction has been achieved in grades of AQM. Also, remarkable improvement in the multicasting efficiency for sessions is observed.

Lastly, with regard to reliable services a Multicast zone routing protocol (MZRP) for mobile ad-hoc networks has been proposed and implemented. It is observed that the routing protocol provides the on-demand procedures to establish dynamically mesh-based multicast routing zones along the path from multicast source node to the multicast receivers. It is also observed that the multicast overhead is considerably reduced, and good scalability is achieved with incorporation of control packet flooding inside the multicast zones. Reliable multicast becomes a very challenging problem due to high packet loss rate pertaining to MANETs. The packet losses are caused by error-prone wireless media and node mobility. To reduce packet loss rate a ReAct transport layer protocol has been implemented on top of the MZRP network layer protocol in order to provide reliable services to the multicast receivers. The results of both UDP and ReAct have been compared. From these results, it is noticed that the performance of ReAct is better than the UDP. Also, from the performance studies, it is clearly observed that the ReAct’s local recovery mechanism, manages to prevent the source from reducing its rate unnecessarily, thus improving throughput as compared to ReAct’s throughput. New performance evaluation metric called average key update energy is introduced for the improvement of performance of the energy-efficient key distribution trees for securing multicast communications in wireless ad hoc networks.
Full Text PDF
2. Improve the Performance of LBAC-IAPP by using Proactive Context Caching
Avayambal.K, T.Rajapuspha
In wireless networks, continuous connectivity which allows user mobility and maintains the secured network utilization,is one of the most important requirements. WLANS are widely used in business, goverments, education and public. In order to establish wireless LAN with continuous connectivity, we need to employ additional mechanisms like IAPP, LBAC etc. In this paper, we used the concept of proactive context caching for LBAC-IAPP WLAN to provide continuous connectivity to secure wireless systems. In PCC the selected neighbouring base stations exchange link quality information of the mobile node through distributed system and the information stored in to the cache memory of mobile stations.Based on the quality information the LBAC directional IAPP WLAN the connectivity will be maintained between different access points. It reduces interuption time, handoff delay complexity.
Keywords: LBAC (Location based Access control), IAPP (Inter access point protocol), WLAN, PCC (Proactive Context switching), RADIUS (Authentication server)


Full Text PDF
3. Identification of Land and Water Regions in a Satellite Image: A Texture Based Approach
Amandeep Verma
Vision is the most important resource of information for human beings which contain several activities. Amongst these activities, object recognition and classification are widely used. Although, images are representation of vision which can be interpreted by machines, some images often do not exhibit regions of uniform intensity, but these images may contain variation of intensities which form certain repeated patterns. These repeated patterns are known as visual texture. These patterns can be the result of physical surface properties such as roughness, reflectance and color difference of surface. This special variation in pixel intensities is useful in a variety of applications. One such application is analysis of satellite images, whose purpose is to identify various regions in a given image. In this paper we try to exploit knowledge of texture i.e. repeated patterns of non uniform intensity, to recognize regions in the satellite images. There are many approaches used for texture analysis, mainly these are categorized as statistical, structural, filter and model based. In statistical approaches, a GLCM approach is used to find various regions i.e. land and water in a satellite image by extracting its texture information.
Keywords- Texture, Satellite Images, GLCM, Clustering.
Ful Text PDF
4. Carrying Digital Watermarking for Medical Images using Mobile Devices
K. Ravali, P. Ashok Kumar, Srinivasulu Asadi
In medical facilities, mobile devices provide the medium for remote diagnosis and information retrieval. Mobile devices aid medical personnel by allowing them to access information ubiquitously. The medical doctor or radiologist may use his mobile device to view patient’s medical images. But security and privacy is the major issue for such type of remote diagnosis. The existing system does not support remote diagnosis over mobile communication network. Therefore, in the proposed system remote diagnosis is supported, where a doctor can verify the medical images in his mobile device, though he is far away from the patient. This Telemedicine application requires authentication for safe transmission. The Region of Interest (ROI) is the crucial part for accurate diagnosis and should not be disturbed. To overcome this problem, image segmentation is applied to select only the required portion of medical image and Digital Watermarking using Discrete Cosine Transform is applied to the medical images in the portions of Region of Non Interest (RONI). The mobile devices cannot store large image files and transmission requires more bandwidth. So compression is applied on the image that is to be transmitted.
General Terms-Telemedicine, Medicinal Imaging, Segmentation, Digital Watermarking,.

Keywords-Watermarking, Digital Watermarking, Telemedicine, Medical imaging, discrete cosine transform (DCT).
Full Text PDF
5. Double Precision Optimized Arithmetic Hardware Design for Binary & Floating Point Operands
Pramod Kumar Jain, Hemant Ghayvat , D.S Ajnar
In today’s modern scientific world, technological changes happening with a very fast rate. The rapid growth in financial, commercial, Internet-based applications, there is a huge demand for finding out the devices with low latency, power and area along with there is an increasing desire to allow computers to operate on both binary and decimal floating-point numbers. Accordingly, stipulation for decimal floating-point support is being added to the IEEE-754 Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic. In this research work, we present the design and implementation of a decimal floating-point adder that is acquiescent with the current draft revision of this standard. The adder supports operations on 64-bit (16-digit) decimal floating-point operands [1] .We provide synthesis results indicating the estimated area and delay for our design when it is pipelined to various depths.

High performance computing is strongly required in most applications which deal with floating point Numbers. Most workstations used in these fields are adopting a floating point processing unit to accelerate Performance.


Full Text PDF
6. Simulation Based Performance Analysis of Ad hoc Routing Protocols in Various Moving Trajectories
Tanvi Malik,Gaurav Mittal, Monika Aggarwal
Few characteristics of a Mobile Ad hoc Network, such as dynamic topology and shared wireless medium, pose various security challenges. This paper focuses on the performance investigation of reactive and proactive MANET routing protocols, namely, AODV and OLSR, under various the paths and trajectories. Network performance is evaluated in terms of end to end delay, retransmission attempts, network load and throughput, when a percentage of nodes misbehave. Simulation results show that under different parameters like end-to-end delay, proactive protocols perform well and under throughput parameter, performance of reactive protocols is robust.
Keywords-Ad Hoc, AODV, OLSR, Trajectories, Protocols
Full Text PDF
7. Framework for Injecting the Attacks and Analyzing
the Behaviour of Vulnerability on Server's

Panchamukesh Ch, Kumar.J, Neelima.S, Sailaja.D
 Due to our increasing reliance on computer systems, security  incidents  and  their  causes  are  important  problems that  need  to  be  addressed. The main scope of this paper is to discover the security vulnerabilities on the servers which are connected through networks, for which a new tool is proposed, called AJECT. For some Predefined test classes AJECT tool will automatically generates large number of attacks using the specification of server’s communication protocol. While performing these kinds of attacks it monitors the behaviour of the server both from a client perspective and inside the target machine through the network. The potential existence of vulnerability can be conformed by observation of an incorrect behaviour. To demonstrate the usefulness of this approach, a considerable number of experiments were carried out with several attacks like Special char attack, Assignment attacks, and Query attack.   The obtained results show that AJECT can discover several kinds of vulnerabilities, including a previously unknown vulnerability.

Keywords- fault injection, attack injection, vulnerability, AJECT, server’s, communication protocol.
Full Text PDF
8. QoS based Semi-Automatic Web Service Composition using Multi-Agents Systems
G. Vadivelou, E. Ilavarasan, M.S. Yasmeen
This paper presents an agent and ontology based approach that supports the semi-automatic composition of Web services. A Web service is an accessible application that other applications and humans can discover and invoke to satisfy multiple needs. To reduce the complexity featuring the composition of Web services, two concepts are put forward, namely, software agent and ontology.  An agent is an entity that acts on behalf of others in an autonomous fashion,   performs its actions in some level of pro-activity and reactivity and exhibits some levels of the key attributes of learning, co-operation, and mobility. Agent Based Systems (ABS)[11] may be divided, roughly, into individual agents, and multi-agent systems (MAS)[11]. Agent technology has been a hot topic, and most likely, this is mainly due to the popularity of the Java programming language, which represents an ideal language for implementing software agents as it is the “Write Once Run Anywhere” language. Ontology is a formal representation of knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain, and the relationships between those concepts. It is used to reason about the entities within that domain, and may be used to describe the domain. The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is a family of knowledge representation languages for authoring ontologies. This paper provides the way to select an optimal composition of services and it also propose a framework for Semi-Automatic Web Services Composition.
Keywords- Agents, Web Service, Web Service Composition ,  OWL-S, WSIG
Full Text PDF
9. Electronic Skin - The Sense of Touch
K. Ranganath, P.Krupali ,M.Sravanthy
This paper  focuses on the Electronic skin(E-Skin)  to build a skin work similar to that of the human skin and also it is embedded with several sensations or the sense of touch  acting on the skin.  This skin is already being stitched together. It consists of millions of embedded electronic measuring devices: thermostats, pressure gauges, pollution detectors, cameras, microphones, glucose sensors, EKGs, electronic holographs. This device would enhance the new technology which is emerging and would greatly increase the usefulness of robotic probes in areas where the human cannot venture. The sensor could pave the way for a overabundance of new applications that can wirelessly monitor the vitals and body movements of a patient sending information directly to a computer that can log and store data to better assist in future decisions. This paper offers an insight view of the designing, developing, implementing and usage of   E-Skin.
 Keywords- E-Skin, organic field-effect transistor (OFET), Quantum Tunneling Composite (QTC), micrographs.
Full Text PDF
10. Improved Receiver-Based Algorithm for Resourceful Broadcasting in Portable ADHOC Networks
R.Ganesan, Dr.A.Arul Lawrence selvakumar

Two efficient broadcasting algorithms based on 1-hop neighbor information is implemented here, i.e. Sender-based broadcasting algorithm and receiver-based broadcasting algorithm. The sender-based broadcasting algorithm selects a subset of nodes to forward the message. An efficient sender-based broadcasting algorithm proposed here is based on 1-hop neighbor information where the number of forwarding nodes selected in the worst case is 11 which reduces the time complexity of computing forwarding nodes to O (n). An elementary and extremely competent receiver-based broadcasting algorithm is also implemented. When nodes are uniformly distributed, the chance of two neighbor nodes broadcasting the same message exponentially diminishes when the distance between them decreases or when the node density increases. Using simulation, the results demonstrates that, the number of broadcasts in our proposed receiver-based broadcasting algorithm can be even less than one of the best known approximations.

Keywords- Wireless ad hoc networks, flooding, broadcasting, localized algorithms.
Full Text PDF
11. Model for Token Based Secure Transaction in ATM Networks.
Sonika Katta, Dinesh Goyal, Ruchi Dave,Naveen Hemrajani

Security is a key issue in Data Warehouses. Data warehousing poses its own set of challenges for security. One major challenge is that enterprise data warehouses are often very large systems, serving many user communities with varying security needs. Thus, the data warehouses require a flexible and powerful security infrastructure. The Security applications, must prevent unauthorized users from accessing or modifying data; the applications and underlying data must not be susceptible to data theft by hackers; the data must be available to the right users at the right time; and the system must keep a record of activities performed by its users. A successful authentication takes place if a user can prove to a server that he/she knows the shared secret without actually transmitting that secret across the wire. Here we use the Token-based authentication for access the data in Data Warehouse Server. Token Based authentication is a security technique that authenticates users who are attempting to log in to a server, a network, or some other secure system.

Keywords: Data warehouse, security, Authentication, Token-Based authentication.

Full Text PDF
12. Spectrum Management in Cellular Network using Cognitive ROF
Sandeep singh,Ravi prakash shukla

Radio-over-Fibre (RoF) is an optical communication technique based on the transmission of standard wireless radio signals though optical Fibre in their native format. The optical Fibre provides a huge bandwidth that can support a variety of wireless systems, regardless of their frequency bands, being protocol-transparent which is reflected in great network flexibility. Radio-over- Fibre techniques enables a high user capacity by frequency reuse, simplifies the network operation as the signals are distribute in their native format, and permits to transfer signal part of the processing power from the base station units to the central control station, thus reducing the overall deployment cost and complexity.   The paper explores some of the advantages that radio over technologies can bring to wireless networks when combined with cognitive radio techniques.

Key words: Rof, cognitive Rof, cellular network

Full Text PDF
13. Analysis of Finite State Machine and Classical Iterative Cluster Labeling for 3D Images on Mobile Computing Strategies
Venkata Durga.Kiran Kasula, Sudheesha Cheepi, S.S.Reddy L

The model presents an efficient Finite State Machine on Hoshen-Kopelman (HK) using the nearest eight neighborhood rule .This approach uses the classical iterative Cluster Labeling method for the digital 3-D images. The model is going to propose the system where classical iterative can be implemented in passes and concentrates on test data, binary and color images on any mobile devices as well as randomly generated data for the cluster identification. Though conversation was provided along with a probable remedy for hardware blueprints.

Keywords- Cluster, Cluster analysis, Hoshen-Kopelman algorithm, Finite State machine, mobile devices performances, hybrid method, Cluster Labeling.
Full Text PDF
14. Analysis of Algorithms to implement Swarm Bots for Effective Swarm Robotics
Deepika Rani Kampally, Rashmi Annae, Santhosh Kumar

The swarm intelligence paradigm has established to have very interesting properties such as robustness, flexibility and ability to solve complex problems exploiting parallelism and self-organization. Several robotics implementations of this paradigm confirm that these properties can be exploited for the control of a population of physically autonomous mobile robots. Swarm robotics is a new approach to the coordination of large numbers of relatively simple robots which takes its inspiration from social insects. This paper analyzes different algorithms that are designed for the working of a swarm robot and how they enable the multiple physical quadrupedal robots to diagnose and recover when placed in unanticipated situations. The algorithms dealt in this paper are explained on the basis of two projects where in the technical and practical aspects are examined based on the theoretical approach.

Keywords: swarm robots, IROBOT,control,borders, Distributed.
Full Text PDF
15. Color Image Segmentation Using CIELab Color Space Using Ant Colony Optimization
Seema Bansal, Deepak Aggarwal

This paper proposes an approach for the segmentation of color images using CIELab color space and Ant based clustering.  Image segmentation is the process of assigning a label to every pixel in an image such that pixels with the same label share certain visual characteristics. The objective of segmentation is to change the image into meaningful form that is easier to analyze. This paper elaborates the ant based clustering for image segmentation. CMC distance is used to calculate the distance between pixels as this color metric gives good results with CIELab color space. Results show the segmentation using ant based clustering and also verifies that number of clusters for the image with the CMC distance also varies. Clustering quality is evaluated using MSE measure.

Keywords— Ant Clust, CMC distance, CIELab color space, segmentation.

Full Text PDF
16. Quality of services in addition with Admission-Control in WI-Max-A Tutorial
Shivani Khurana

As we, all know that in every field it is very important to have quality of services. In the field of Real-time, applications like ATM and Wi-Fi are few examples. Some metrics for quality of services are Cost, Flexibility, Reliability and Efficiency. In this paper, we deal with quality of services in relation to admission control of the packets. In admission control, it should concentrate on scheduling and routing that at which time a packet should sent from source to destination for less jitter and delay. There should be regular intervals of checkpoints, which show statistics of the networks that how the packets are, delivered.
Keywords- WI-Max, Scheduling, Routing, Admission-Control, Traffic-Management.

Full Text PDF
17. Low Cost Eye Tracking Technique For Visual Scan Path Detection in the diagnosis of Special Learning Disorders in Children
Sumathi.V, M.Monicasubashini, Himabindu. J

Eye movements are the key to human thought process. Tracing these movements, with or without the knowledge of the user, as an input can be leveraged to several intelligent and intuitive design interfaces. An attempt is made to develop a computationally efficient and cost effective application for visual scan path analysis by real time eye tracking using a low resolution USB web camera. Eye ball movement can be followed by obtaining the image of the eye using the camera, mounted on the system, interfaced with LabVIEW. The glint- reflection of the light source formed on the pupil in the eye ball acts as the ROI (Region of Interest) and can be located in the real time images of the eye. The glint is tracked in the incoming video stream and monitored to trace the scan path. The LabVIEW VI gives the coordinates of the glint which are stored in the database. As a test application, a scenario is developed for diagnosis of special learning disorders in children.
Keywords-ROI; Glint; Tracking; Special Learning Disorders (SpLDs)

Full Text PDF
18. Distance Metrics based Vehicle Object Identification in Dynamic Vision
M.Sankari, C.Meena

Vehicle object identification is a challenging issue in the visual surveillance. In recent years, video monitoring and surveillance system have been widely utilized for traffic monitoring and management. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to identify the moving objects from the sequence of video frames which contains dynamically changing backgrounds in the noisy environment. Reference to our previous surveillance skeletanization works, here we have proposed a methodology to identify an object using distance metrics such as Hamming and Euclidian distance metrics. The recent vehicle recognition methods could fail to identify the objects and produce more false acceptance rate (FAR) or false rejection rate (FRR) however our research recommends a method for object identification using weighted distance to extract features in order to obtain robust identification in the noisy environment.
Keywords- Distance transformations, Euclidian Distance, false acceptance rate, false rejection rate, Hamming Distance,
Skeletanization, Traffic video sequences, weighted distance.

Full Text PDF
19. Adoption and Acceptance of ICT Innovations in Nigerian Public Universities
Oye, N. D.; A.Iahad, N.and Ab.Rahim, N.

This paper examined the adoption and acceptance of ICT innovation in Nigerian Public Universities. This study was conducted at the university of Jos Plateau state, Nigeria as a pilot study. One hundred questionnaires were administered and collected, containing 23 UTAUT survey questions and 9 demographic statements totaling 32 questions. In addition, 57% of the respondents were male and 43% were female. The paper attempt to answer the questions (1) What are the barriers to using ICT by an academician? . Question Q32 which talk about barriers to use of ICT, have the majority of the respondents (42%) which said that their problem is time; on the other hand (31%) said that the problem is training. Others respondents (4%) said that cost are their problem, another group (20%) said that they need compensation and the final group (3%) said that, it does not fit their programme. This paper use regression analysis to verify the UTAUT Model. We use the regression analysis to check the influence of the independent variables (PE, EE, SI & FC) on the dependent variable (BI) which is the behavioral intention to accept and use ICT by the university academicians, using SPSS version 17. The major determining factors are the correlation (r), the variance (R2) and the p-value of significance.  Figures 1-7, discusses the influence of the independent variables (PE, EE, SI & FC) on the dependent variable (BI) with their respective interpretations. From table 8, the best result is obtained by the influence of the four independent variables on the dependent variable BI. This is followed by the influence of the three independent variables ( PE, EE & FC) on BI. Finally the two independent variables that influence the BI most are the PE &EE. The findings have important implications for teaching and learning. PE and EE are found to be the most significant predictors of academic staff acceptance of ICT and use. Therefore the university academicians need to be aware of the possibility of using ICT for teaching and learning without too much difficulty. They need to learn the basics of the technologies that will be most useful in their teaching and learning. Recommendations made were that, all employed teachers in Federal, State and Private universities should undertake mandatory training and retraining on ICT programme
Keywords: Adoption; ICT; Innovation; Acceptance; Public Universities; UTAUT Model.

Full Text PDF