Volume 1 Issue 10- November 2011


S.No Title Page
1. Improved Ant Colony Optimization for Grid Scheduling
D.Maruthanayagam,R.Uma Rani

This paper focuses on applying one of the rapidly growing non-deterministic optimization algorithms, the ant colony algorithm in Grid computing. It is growing rapidly in the distributed heterogeneous systems for utilizing and sharing large-scale resources to solve complex scientific problems. Scheduling is the most recent topic used to achieve high performance in grid environments with several conflicting objectives. Within this paper, methods have been developed and applied for scheduling techniques in grid computing.  It aims to find a suitable allocation of resources for each job with the comparison of ACO and proposed ACO. This paper, proposes an improved ant colony scheduling algorithm combined with the concept of RASA. The first step for this to select a set of computers and a network connection (switching, routers, Ethernet, Myrinet Etc.,) for an application. A task algorithm from RASA first estimates the completion time of the tasks on each of the available grid resources and then applies the Max-min and Min-min algorithms.   Allocation of resources to a large number of jobs in a grid computing environment presents more difficulty than in network computational environments.         This proposed algorithm is evaluated using the simulated execution times for a grid environment. Before starting the grid scheduling, the expected execution time for each task on each machine must be estimated and represented by an Expected Time calculation. The proposed scheduler allocates adopt the system environment freely at runtime. This resource optimally and adaptively in the scalable, dynamic and distribute controlled environment. Conclude of this propose depending upon the performance of the grid systems.

Key words: Grid Computing, Job Scheduling, Heuristic Algorithm, opportunistic Load Balancing, genetic Algorithms, Simulated Annealing algorithms and Max-Min Ant system.

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2. Modeling of Access Control System using Petri-nets
Sunita Kumawat, G.N.Purohit

In this paper we purpose a Petri-net-based method for describing the model of an object-oriented design of Access Control System (ACS), by specifying the object interaction scenarios as Petri nets with an Augmented Marked Petri Net (AMPN) structure. After synthesizing these scenarios into an integrated net, we analyze the system based on the special properties of AMPN. For unique representation of events and conditions in an object-oriented ACS, an improved algorithm is applied to the integrated labelled Petri net of ACS to eliminate duplicate condition labels and event labels, with preserving the event firing sequences. Object-based behavioural specifications of ACS are then obtained as projections of the integrated labelled Petri nets onto the objects. For the illustration we present the model of Office access control system in any academic or industry. 

Keywords—Access control System; Petri net; Augmented marked Petri net Graph; Resources; Siphon.

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3. Implementation of RETSINA-based Congestion Control Technique in Realistic WSN Scenarios
AV. Vijaya Raja, R. Rani Hemamalini and A. Jose Anand

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have utilized a huge amount research interest for their omnipresent applications to gather information from their sensing terrain. The gathered information will undergo in-network process and send to the remote sink. In this densely distributed network high packet flow occur near the sink due to the convergent nature of upstream traffic. Congestion may occur in the network and cause packet loss. Therefore congestion has to be controlled to prolong the sensor nodes lifetime. This paper presents RETSINA-based upstream congestion control protocol named, Agent-based Congestion Control Protocol (ACCP) for wireless sensor networks. The rate traffic analysis on each node is based on the priority index and the congestion degree of the node. In addition, we comprehensively evaluated the performance of congestion control with multi agent platforms as technology choices and investigated its latency and protocol overhead in three different scenarios.
Index – agent, congestion control, fairness, latency, protocol overhead, sensor nodes, upstream congestion control

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4. An Integrated Novel Crawling Architecture of GIS on Web Data Mining
Sudhir Jagtap and G. N. Shinde

This study presents the role of GIS  in web  mining environment. As the fastest development of the World Wide Web, and the research community emphasis on the current and future issues of Web mining .This area is combination of the activated research areas: Data Mining and World Wide Web. This paper discusses a learning environment of GIS on web mining. Three recognized types of web data mining are introduced and a theoretical framework of web crawler in web mining is discussed.

KEY WORDS: Data mining, Web mining, web data, GIS.

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5. Classification of Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: A Review
Vishal Pahal, Amit Verma, Payal Gupta

Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is a wireless network without infrastructure. Self configurability and easy deployment feature of the MANET resulted in numerous applications in this modern era. In order to facilitate communication within the network, a routing protocol is used to discover routes between nodes. Routing protocols used in wired network cannot be used for mobile ad-hoc networks because of node mobility. Efficient routing protocols will make MANETs reliable .Routing is a core issue in networks for delivering data from one node to another in ad hoc network. This Paper deals with number of ways of categorization of protocol and also present some specified protocols according to that classification. The emphasis of this paper is not to present protocol in detail but present main feature of wide variety of different protocols and discuss their suitability.

Keywords-   Routing protocols, Mobile Ad hoc network, routing schemes Classification of protocols, Comparison of protocols.


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6. Text Extraction from Visiting Card
Amol Darekar, Vaibhav Ghatol, Saurabh Karle , Anita Thengade

This paper describe the one of the method  of text extraction from visiting card images with fanciful design containing complicated color background and reverse contrast regions. The proposed method is based on edge detection followed by grouping of edges based on size, orientation and color attributes. After detecting edges of text from card we can apply image processing steps such as noise removal, segmentation to extract text from complex image. This text image can be recognized using OCR .We can design OCR using Artificial Neural Network. Some post processing like color identification and binarization will be helpful to get a pure binary text image for OCR.

Keywords— OCR (Optical Character Recognition), Binarization, Segmentation

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7. A New Internet Service Provider Billing System
Firas Abdullah Thweny Al-Saedi, Shaima' Safaaldin Bahaaldin

This paper presents an Internet Service Provider Billing System with unique characteristics and rich feature content, enabling significant cost reduction. The main mechanism of this system is controlling the Online Charging System (OCS). The support for high user load capacity, traffic management, and revenue management makes this system ideal for any small/medium/large ISP. The features of this System are: Tracking, Re-invoicing, Adjustments/credits account creation, verifying and controlling the access time for both LAN and WAN systems in a real time environment. The system includes unlimited scalability, Industry-leading billing capabilities, Web-based administration. It was tested and ran successfully on an Intranet system, that contains a Windows Domain Controller and each PC was a member of that Domain Controller.

Keywords - (OCS) Online Charging System, (LDAP) Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, (ADSI) Active Directory Services Interface, (RADIUS) Remote Authentication Dial In User Service,   (ADDC) Active Directory Domain Controller

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8. A Review: Image Compression Algorithm
Maneesha Gupta,Amit Kumar garg,Abhishek Kaushik

Image compression is the application of Data compression on digital images. The discrete cosine transform (DCT) is a technique for converting a signal into elementary frequency components. It is widely used in image compression. Here we develop some simple functions to compute the DCT and to compress images. An image compression algorithm was comprehended using Matlab code, and modified to perform better when implemented in hardware description language. The IMAP block and IMAQ block of MATLAB was used to analyse and study the results of Image Compression using DCT and varying co-efficients for compression were developed to show the resulting image and error image from the original images. Image Compression is studied using 2-D discrete Cosine Transform. The original image is transformed in 8-by-8 blocks and then inverse transformed in 8-by-8 blocks to create the reconstructed image.  The inverse DCT would be  performed using the subset of DCT coefficients.  The error image (the difference between the original and reconstructed image) would be displayed. Error value for every image would be calculated over various values of DCT co-efficients as selected by the user and would be displayed in the end to detect the accuracy and compression in the resulting image.

Keywords: Discrete Cosine Transform, Pixels, Inverse Fourier, Encoding, Decoding, Quantization, Entropy.


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9. Anycasting – One-To-One-Of-Many Communication Method in IPV6
Santhosh Sharma, Ajay Rawat, Sushil Chamoli

On the Internet today, anycasting is used to balance the connection load across multiple Web servers sharing the same content. Anycasting communication is a new “one-to-one-of-many” communication method in Internet Protocol version6 (IPv6) networks. With the help of this technology, it becomes a virtual watch to find the best server, which respond to a request of the client. Due to issues which are not resolved and very slow deployment of IPv6, anycast communication of network-layer is still not a reality. But in recent years so many researchers took their interest in the area of IPv6 anycast communication. It guarantees a look at the state and direction of the ideas in this area. In This paper we have discussed some of the major difficulties with network-layer anycast communication. We also focused on the possible solutions of the problems with IPv6 anycast communication, as well as some optimizations and applications that have been developed recently.
Keywords: Anycasting, IPV6, Communication, network-layer

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10. Optimized Hybrid Renewable Energy to be Grid- Connected-A Smart Energy Scenario in India
Aurobi Dasr, V. Balakrishnan

This research has illustrated the integration of hybrid renewable energy resources through an Intelligent Controller System to optimize the hybrid renewable resources of solar-wind-bio available at Moushuni Island of Sundarbab-West Bengal, Eastern part of India as a case analysis. The objective is to integration of hybrid renewable plant after optimization to the nearest conventional electric grid and deployment of smart Service-Oriented-Architecture (SOA) of hybrid energy system in the user-centric pervasive computing concept in the context of Kyoto Protocol for sustainable development of the rural and urban sector. The research also  llustrated on how Energy Service Companies(ESCOs), and ESCOs groups and ESCOs chains or e-energy service companies in the Smart-Grid network can optimize the national power shortage problem in peak
demand period. This proposition also helps to minimize the adverse challenges of climate change utilizing renewable energy resources at this service value network integrating into repository of conventional energy resources, thus reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions percentage and ultimately enhancing a green power scenario. By feeding renewable electricity to the utility grid through grid-connected hybrid
renewable energy system, during time of peak demand, sufficient electrical loads can be shed to prevent turning on conventional power plants and therefore save CO2 emissions and potentially energy import costs, replacing fossil fuels. Also, a concept of next generation mobile smart-grid city can be proposed in future,
which with the chain of ESCOs with energy conservation (ENCON) measures can reduce CO2 emission ultimately.
Keywords— Smart-Grid; Pervasive Computing; Service Oriented Architecture; Energy Service Companies; Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems; CO2 Emission.

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11. Fuzzy Closed Ideals of B-Algebras
Tapan Senapati, Manoranjan Bhowmik, Madhumangal Pal

In this paper, we apply the concept of fuzzy set to ideals and closed ideals in B-algebras. The notion of a fuzzy closed ideal of a B-algebra is introduced, and some related properties are investigated. Also, the product of fuzzy BG-algebra is investigated.
Keywords—B-algebras, fuzzy sets, fuzzy ideals, homomorphism, fuzzy closed ideals, homomorphism, equivalence relation, level cut, product of B-algebra.

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12. Modeling and Automated Containment of Worms
P.Daniel Ratna Raju, G.Neelima

While much recent research concentrates on propagation models, the defense against worms is largely an open problem. Classical containment strategies, based on manual application of traffic filters, will be almost totally ineffective in the wide area since the worms are able to spread at rates that effectively preclude any human-directed reaction. Consequently, developing an automated, flexible and adaptive containment strategy is the most viable way to defeat worm propagation in an acceptable time. As a case in point, we look to natural immune systems, which solve a similar problem, but in a radically different way. Accordingly, we present a cooperative immunization system inspired in principles and structure by the natural immune system that helps in defending against these types of attacks. Our system automatically detects pathologic traffic conditions due to an infection and informs, according to a cooperative communication principle, all the reachable networked nodes about the ongoing attack, triggering the actions required to their defence.To evaluate our proposal, we formulated a simple worm propagation and containment model, and evaluated our system using numerical solution and sensitivity analysis. Our measurements show that our reaction strategy is sufficiently robust against all the most common malicious agents. We envision that the above solution will be an effective line of defense against more aggressive worms.

Keywords: worms; viruses; automatic detection/containment; network immune systems.

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13. Estimation Schemes of OFDM Integer Frequency Offset for DVB-T Systems
Youngpo Lee, Jong In Park, and Seokho Yoon

In this paper, we propose two estimation schemes of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) integer frequency offset (IFO) for digital video broadcasting-terrestrial (DVB-T) systems. In the conventional scheme, the decision variable is based on the limited number of the correlations and ratios of pilots of the received samples, and thus, the decision variable contains only a small portion of the signal energy, resulting in performance degradation. On the other hand, the propose schemes combine the correlations and ratios of pilots of the received samples efficiently. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed schemes provide a better performance compared with that of the conventional scheme in terms of the correct estimation probability.

Keywords—DVB-T, estimation, IFO, OFDM, pilot.

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