Volume 1 Issue 5- June 2011


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1. Query Dependant Single Document Summarization using Partitional Clustering: K-Means Clustering Approach
Giri Virat ,Bewoor Mrunal ,Patil S.H

A huge amount of on-line information is available on the web, and is still growing. While search engines were developed to deal with this huge volume of documents, even they output a large number of documents for a given user's query. Under these circumstances it became very difficult for the user to find the document he actually needs, because most of the users are reluctant to make the cumbersome effort of going through each of these documents. Therefore systems that can automatically summarize one or more documents are becoming increasingly desirable.
A summary can be loosely defined as a text that is produced from one or more texts. Automatic summarization is to use automatic mechanism to produce a finer version for the original document.
This paper presents the results of an experimental study of K-means document clustering techniques. We have implemented the query dependant single document summarization by using clustering approach. We have implemented k-means algorithm for only .txt file.
The performance of the algorithm is analyzed on different evolution factors like execution time, number of words in summary, number of computational loops  etc.

Keywords- K-means Clustering, Summarization, weighted Document graph,Clustered  graph.

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2. Analysis of EMI effects on Monostable Multivibrator
Mandeep Kaur , Danvir Mandal

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) has a negative effect upon the performance of circuit communication systems. The present study considers the case of EMI  and it is shown that the harmonic noise increases with an increasing interference amplitude and frequency. When electromagnetic interference takes place with the input pins of 555 Timer using as an  Monostable Multivibrator it can cause operation variation. This paper deals with the investigation of EMI effects in 555 timer circuit. This work presents evaluation of the EMI effects in 555 timer by applying a range of EMI signals varying from 5MHz-30MHz at constant magnitude of 100mV in series along with the 5Hz/5V original input signal. The EMI effects on the test 555 timer are predicted using ORCAD  in terms of total job time, time step and output waveform. All the results compiled in the paper are simulated from the same. For easier understanding Bar graph is shown.

Keywords: Electromagnetic Interference, Electromagnetic Wave Propagation, Monostable multivibrator, 555 timer .

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3. Towards Effective Software Security through Testing Stage of SDLC
Vidyabhushan Anantrao Upadhye ,Shashank D. Joshi

Today software has  become  an integral part day to day life Keeping in view the daily increase in software security threats, developing secure software has become a necessity in the propose method most of the vulnerability are tested.  Early detection of vulnerabilities in software while developing it and countering them in the software development cycle will save our time and energy spent on removing them after software release. In this paper we propose technique  software security through Testing Stage of  SDLC.
Keyword: software development life cycle , vulnerabilities

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4. Extreme Programming versus CMMI – Conflicts and Compatibilities
Therese Clara V, Alagarsamy.K.

Agile methods like extreme programming have assumed tremendous significance in the last few years. At the same time, since it has been getting clear that most project failures can be attributed to inconsistent and undisciplined processes, more organizations have started to rely on process maturity models. CMMI compliance is being demanded for projects where agile methods are employed. In this situation it is necessary to analyze the interrelations and mutual restrictions between agile methods and approaches for software process analysis and improvement. This paper analyzes to what extent the CMMI process areas can be covered by XP and where adjustments of XP have to be made. Based on this, the limitations of CMMI in an agile environment are described and further it is shown that level 4 or 5 are not feasible under the current specifications of CMMI and XP.

Keywords— process models. CMMI, Agile methods, extreme programming

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5. Study of Transmission Characteristics of 2x2 MIMO system for different Digital Modulation using OFDM and STBC Multiplexing Techniques and ZF Equalizer Receiver
R Bhagya, A.G. Ananth

A detailed analysis of the performance of 2×2 Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna system has been carried out by determining the transmit diversity using Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) techniques. The transmission characteristics are determined for BPSK, QPSK and 16-QAM modulation. Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) has been used presuming flat fading Rayleigh channel. On the receiver side, linear equalization techniques such as Zero Forcing (ZF) were employed for computing the BER performance. The simulation results show that for BER of ~10-4, the SNR achieved are found to be significantly high. The results indicate SNR ~32dB for BPSK modulation, the SNR ~37dB for QPSK modulation and the SNR ~40dB for 16-QAM modulation over OFDM transmission. The MIMO - OFDM multiplexing schemes show a overall improvement of ~ 8 dB  for BER values of 10-4 between 16-QAM modulation   and BPSK modulation. Further a detailed comparison of the performance of OFDM multiplexing   with STBC multiplexing for MIMO transmission shows large improvement in BER performance for OFDM with digital modulation. The simulations results are presented and discussed in the paper.
Keywords: Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO), Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Phase Shift Keying (PSK), Quadrature Amplitude modulation (QAM), Bit Error Rate (BER), Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), Space Time Block Code (STBC).

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6. Application of PI, Fuzzy Logic and ANN in Improvement of Power Quality using Unified Power Quality Conditioner
K.S. Ravi Kumar , S.V.A.R.Sastry

The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is being used as a universal active power conditioning device to mitigate both current and voltage harmonics at a distribution side of power system network. This paper emphasis enhancement of power quality by using UPQC with fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and proportional-integral (PI) controller. The main purpose of the proposed  (FLC) is capable of providing good static and dynamic performances compared to PID controller.

Keywords— UPQC, Fuzzy, ANN, PQ, THD.

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7. Color Image Quantization Techniques Based On Image Decomposition For Power Consumption For Embedded Systems
S.Subramanian, V.Shivamurugan

DData transmission over the Internet is prevalent and the development of efficient algorithms for compressing such data in order to achieve reduced bandwidth has been an active research. With increased demand for exchanges of datas over the Internet, research for data compression is more intense than ever before. Computing techniques that would considerably reduce the number of colours in an image that occupies less space and bandwidth for transmission over networks form an active research. The less space and less bandwidth will also reduce the memory access for displaying image and this will lead to saving considerable amount of power in a resource constrained battery operated embedded system. In this project a new colour quantisation (CQ) technique is introduced. The CQ technique is based on image split into sub-images and the use of self-organised neural network classifiers (SONNC). Initially, the dominant colours of each sub-image are extracted through SONNCs and then are used for the quantisation of the colours of the entire image. In addition, for the estimation of the proper number of dominant image colours, a new algorithm based on the projection of the image colours into the first two principal components is proposed. Applying a systematic design methodology to the developed CQ algorithm, an efficient embedded architecture based on the ARM7 processor achieving high-speed processing and less energy consumption, is derived.

KEY WORDS:Colour quantisation technique, Artificial  neural network, Kohonen Self-organised neural network classifiers.

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8. Comparative Study of the detection algorithms in MIMO
Ammu.I, Deepa.R.

Wireless communication systems are gaining importance especially with respect to mobiles phones and data devices because of their ease of use and mobility. The need for high data rate is growing since the multimedia applications are gaining popularity which needs high data rate and quality of service. Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) transmission system is one of the recent and the most promising approach of the Smart Antenna Technology which uses multiple antennas in the transmitter and the receiver side and is currently followed for high-rate wireless communication. The capacity of MIMO systems is much better when compared to all other antenna configurations like SISO, SIMO, MISO. In MIMO, many receiver algorithms have been used for the detection of the transmitted symbols. This paper discusses some of the algorithms used and they are compared based on complexity and BER performance. Out of the discussed algorithms, Maximum Likelihood (ML) is found to be the best in terms of BER but the complexity increases exponentially with increase in number of transmitters. The Sphere decoding algorithm is gradually replacing ML as it reduces the computational complexity while maintaining the same performance as that of ML.The algorithms are simulated in MATLAB and BER performances are validated.

Keywords— Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems, Single Input Single Output (SISO), Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO), Multiple Input Single Output (SISO), Maximum Likelihood detection (ML), and Sphere decoding algorithm.

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9. A Self Analysing and Reliable SOA Model
Prachet Bhuyan, Asima Das, Durga Prasad Mohapatra

Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) provides a new way of application development by using existing services. The required services are collected and loosely composed to meet the user’s specification, where the architecture of SOA is dynamic that is, it can change dynamically at run time to meet the new requirements. This paper proposes an architecture which has the capability to analyze the developed services by comparing the user’s requirements. Finding a method for testing the accuracy of a service is a challenge always. The architecture provides a unified way of self analysis which evaluates the perfectness of developed service, before its delivery, and to find out its accuracy. This calculated perfectness is stored in the service profile of that service. The database is maintained for each service which helps for searching a required service to meet user’s specification and for composition of a new service. When this self analysis of the developed service does not satisfy to meet the user’s requirement because of not satisfying any conditions, it generates the fault. Fault is handled to provide the required correctness for composition of the service by detecting the services responsible for those faults. The architecture provides both reliability and analysis capability by handling fault and by searching a service based on accuracy which provides reliable delivery of service.

Keywords— SOA, Self Analysing, Reliable, Composition, Service

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10. Power Aware Reconfigurable Multiplier for DSP Applications
S. Sri Sakthi , N. Kayalvizhi

DSP applications are rich in multiplication operations. Hence there is a growing need in improving the efficiency of multipliers. To improve the performance of multipliers, reconfiguration is introduced. In this paper, reconfiguration is introduced in the form of one level recursive architecture to the existing modified booth multiplier (MBM). It provides reconfigurable modes that satisfy multiple precision requirements. Power consumption of the multipliers can be reduced with the introduction of power efficient schemes namely Dynamic Operand Interchange and Spurious Power Suppression Technique to the reconfigurable booth architecture.

Keywords— Booth multiplier, modified booth multiplier, reconfiguration, one level recursive architecture, power analysis.

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11. Modeling a MOSFET for Monolithic Millimeterwave Integrated Circuit Design
Adhira Raj, Karthigha Balamurugan, Jayakumar M

The millimetre-wave spectrum at 30-300 GHz is of increasing interest to service providers and systems designers because of the wide bandwidths available for carrying communications at this frequency range. These wide bandwidths are valuable in supporting applications such as high speed data transmission and video distribution. This project mainly focuses on modeling a MOSFET for millimeter-wave integrated circuits(MMIC). There are many emerging millimeter-wave applications which demand for low unit cost manufacturing solutions. With the advent of millimeter-wave semiconductor technology a MOSFET is modeled to work efficiently at high frequency. The transistor modeling is done by developing a compact model with BSIM3v3 and external parasitics to model substrate and gate resistance. High frequency MOSFET compact model built using BSIM3v3 as intrinsic core and having parasitic elements supporting HF are designed as extrinsic subcircuit. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed composite MOSFET model, the proposed methodology is then used in designing a low power millimeter-wave CMOS low noise amplifier. S-parameter analysis is to be verified for non linear large signal transistor model analysis of millimeter-wave signals. A hybrid millimeter-wave modeling is done using ansoft designer by designing the appropriate extrinsic region.

Keywords— Monolithic millimetre-wave integrated circuit (MMIC), CMOS millimeter-wave integrated circuits, LNA-low noise amplifier, high frequency (HF) behaviour, composite model, Bsim3v3.

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12. Spatial Multiplexing for Millimeter Waves using TSV Model
Savitha Manojna.D, Kirthiga.S, Jayakumar.M

Millimeter waves have the potential of providing multi-gigabit per second wireless networks. Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO) is emerging to be a key technology for enabling wireless technology whose features will improve by increasing the spectral efficiency of the systems at lower cost per bit. Spatial Multiplexing MIMO is found to suffice this requirement which has the principal use of increasing the spectral efficiency. The performance of Spatial Multiplexed system for the Triple Saleh Valenzuela (TSV) Channel model is simulated by assuming a simple indoor LOS environment model. The TSV model takes in to account both the Time of arrival of the rays and Angle of Arrival information of the antenna. Assuming a perfect channel for Estimation, the Bit Error performance of the system is investigated for Zero Forcing, Minimum Mean Square and Maximum Likelihood receivers for 2x2 and 4x4 and 8x8 Spatial Multiplexed systems for BPSK modulation schemes. 

Keywords— Millimetre Waves, Spatial Multiplexing, Triple Saleh Valenzuela model, Zero Forcing, Minimum Mean Square Error, Maximum Likelihood Equalizer.

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13. Performance of Microstrip Antenna of Different Substrates and Geometries for S-Band
Amish Kumar Jha , Bharti Gupta

In this paper, many techniques are suggested and analyses for rectangular microstrip antenna (RMSA) operating in S-band for 3 GHz as center frequency. Using transmission-line model, analysis was done for the behavior of the antenna for different types of substrates, modified patch geometries and shifted feeding point, operating at S-band (2 to 4GHz). This design of  RMSA is made to several dielectric materials, and the selection is based upon which material gives a better antenna performance with reduced surface wave loss. Glass PTFE and Duroid 5880 are the best materials for proposed design to achieve an enhanced Bandwidth (BW) and better mechanical characteristics than using air. These results are simulated using Feko EM solution software version 6.0.

Keywords— Microstrip antenna, Feko EM solution, Input impedance, Quarts, VSWR, Glass PTFE.

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14. Design Optimization of High-Power Pulsed Mode IMPATT Oscillator: A Generalised Modelling on Sensitivity Analysis
Diptadip Chakraborty, Papia Bhattacharyya, Arijit Das, Milon Garai, Moumita Mukherjee

An optimized design of pulsed-mode Si double - drift IMPATT at W-band is presented in this paper. The design is made realistic by incorporating physics –based modelling and experimentally obtained material parameter data. For the first time, the authors have made a sensitivity analysis to study the effects of variation of critical design parameters on the high-frequency performance of the devices. The authors have studied the effects of variation of junction temperature on the device characteristics within a range of 300K-600K. A generalized physics-based drift-diffusion simulator is developed to study the optimized performance of the device.

Keywords— Silicon IMPATT, Double-Drift device, Sensitivity modelling, pulsed device, elevated junction temperature. 

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