Volume 2 Issue 3- March 2012


S.No Title Page
1. Data Integrity Maintenance in Dynamic Cloud Data Storage
N.Pandeeswari,P.Ganesh Kumar, R.Sivakami

Cloud computing has been often viewed as a next generation of IT enterprise. The cloud makes the users to store the data remotely in cloud storage and reduces the burden of storage and maintenance. And it also moves the application software and databases to the centralized large storage, where the management of data and services are not fully trustable. This brings many new security challenges on storing the data remotely without having any backup .While the prior works, often lacks with the efficient integrity verification and dynamic data operations.  In this work, it is proposed to verify the integrity of data and allowing dynamic data operations such as block insertion, modification and deletion. It is proposed to use homomorphic tokens based on RSA-Signatures to verify the integrity of remotely stored data and in this the Merkle –hash tree is used for authenticating the data. Further this scheme is extended to do batch auditing i.e., doing multiple auditing tasks simultaneously. The performance and security analysis shows that the proposed scheme is highly efficient and provably secure.
Key Words:  data integrity, dynamic data operations,                       homomorphic authentication.

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2. General Approach to Classification: Various Methods can be used to classify X-ray images
N. Subhash Chandra, B.Uppalaiah, G. Charles Babu, K. Naresh Kumar, P. Raja Shekar

X-Ray is one the oldest and frequently used devices, that makes images of any bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, foot, ankle, leg (shin), knee, thigh, hip, pelvis or spine. A typical bone ailment is the fracture, which occurs when bone cannot withstand outside force like direct blows, twisting injuries and falls. Fractures are cracks in bones and are defined as a medical condition in which there is a break in the continuity of the bone. Detection and correct treatment of fractures are considered important, as a wrong diagnosis often lead to ineffective patient management, increased dissatisfaction and expensive litigation. The main focus of this paper is a review study that discusses about various classification algorithms that can be used to classify x-ray images as normal or fractured.

Keywords— X-ray, Classification, Machine Learning, Fusion classifier.

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3. A Frequency Synthesis of All Digital Phase Locked Loop
S.Saravanakumar, N.Kirthika

All Digital Phase locked loops (ADPLL) plays a major role in System on Chips (SoC). Many EDA tools are used to design such complicated ADPLLs. It operates on two modes such as frequency acquisition mode and phase acquisition mode. Frequency acquisition mode is faster compared to Phase acquisition, hence frequency synthesis is performed. The CMOS technology is used to design such a complex design in Micron Technology. The frequency of the ADPLL is synthesized using feed forward compensation techniques. All the parameters of ADPLL (Power consumption, area, locking time) are obtained using 0.18μm technology. The synthesis of ADPLL with Digitally Controlled Oscillator (DCO) and modified Digitally Programmable Delay Element (DPDE) are done and it is found that ADPLL with DPDE consumes less power compared to ADPLL with DCO.
Keywords- All digital Phase locked loops(ADPLL), EDA tool, CMOS technology ,  frequency synthesis, Digitally Controlled Oscillator(DCO), ring oscillator, Digitally Programmable Delay Element (DPDE).

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4. Call Admission Control to improve QoS in MANETs
K. Sabeetha, P. Sheela Angeline


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5. A Low Power Asynchronous FPGA with Power Gating and Dual Rail Encoding
K.Naveena, N.Kirthika

A low power Asynchronous FPGA with LEDR encoding and 4-Phase dual Rail Encoding is designed in this paper. 4-Phase Dual Rail encoding is to achieve small area and LEDR encoding is to get high throughput and low power. LEDR encoding is done at input and 4-phase dual rail encoding is done at the output, which reduces power. Power gating is done to each Logic Block, which shuts down power to the block which is ideal. Power reduction is achieved by selectively setting the functional units into a low leakage mode when they are inactive. The circuit is simulated using Xilinx tool and programmed using verilog language.
Keywords- Asynchronous Field-Programmable Gate Array(FPGA),  Level Encoded Dual Rail (LEDR encoding), 4-Phase Dual Rail Encoding, Power Gating.


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6. 2D Key Exchange Scheme Using Morphological Dilation
Priya Nandihal and Bhaskara Rao.N

A new scheme for Diffie-Hellman type key exchange is presented. This method uses morphological dilation process to provide secure exchange of a 2D key between two users.

Keywords— 2D key, key exchange, morphological dilation, imge as a key.

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7. Introduction to Artificial Intelligence
Nikita A. Kangude, Sanil B. Raut

This paper covers the introduction, history and applications of Artificial Intelligence. In this paper we have dealt with exact definition of artificial intelligence, its origin and the various theories that approach to get the clear idea of principles of AI. Various applications of artificial intelligence in fields like aviation, finance, medicine, games, etc. have been discussed precisely. A latest application of “SURVEILLANCE CAMERA SYSTEM” is presented. In this camera system principle of AI has been used smartly. The system functions autonomously without any manual input and has provided a base to create more intelligent security systems. The paper concludes that the next big revolution in the field of science will be brought about by artificial intelligence.

Keywords— Artificial Intelligence, Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks,  Expert Systems.


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8. A Survey and Taxonomy of scheduling algorithms in Desktop Gri
Jayoti Bansal, Shaveta, Paramajit Singh

 Desktop Grids have proved to be a suitable platform for the execution of Bag-of-Tasks applications but, being characterized by a high resource volatility, require the availability of scheduling techniques able to effectively deal with resource failures and/or unplanned periods of unavailability. Scheduling BoT applications on Desktop Grids has thus attracted the attention of the scientific community, and various schedulers tailored towards them have been proposed in the literature However, due to the wide variety of approaches to this problem, it is difficult to meaningfully compare different systems since there is no uniform means for qualitatively or quantitatively evaluating them. It is also difficult to successfully build upon existing work or identify areas worthy of additional effort without some understanding of the relationships between past efforts. In this paper, taxonomy of approaches to the resource management problem in Grid environments is presented in order to provide a common terminology and classification mechanism necessary in addressing this problem.
Keywords— Bag-of-Tasks applications (BoT), Desktop Grids, Scheduling taxonomy.

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9. Survey on Fault Tolerance Techniques on Grid
Geeta, Shaveta, Paramjit Singh

In a grid environment there are thousands of resources, services and applications that need to interact in order to make possible the use of the grid [1] as an execution platform. Since these elements are extremely heterogeneous, volatile and dynamic, there are many failure possibilities, including not only independent failures of each element, but also those resulting from interactions between them. Because of the inherent instability of grid environments, fault-detection and recovery is another critical component that must be addressed. The need for fault-tolerance is especially sensitive for large parallel applications since the failure rate grows with the number of processors and the duration of the computation.In this paper we will discuss the various fault management stratigies that will help to achieve the fault tolerance and is good reference to researcher.
Keywords— Fault Tolerance, Grid Computing, Fault Prevention, Fault Avoidance, Fault Detection, Fault Recovery

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10.. An Efficient Architecture for Consistency Maintenance and Peer Synchronization in Distributed Systems
Bollimuntha Kishore Babu,Attaluri Rajesh

P2P is a popular technology used for file sharing. File replication and Consistency maintenance are the techniques used in P2P for high system performance. File replication methods specify replica nodes without considering consistency maintenance which may lead to high overhead for unnecessary file replications and consistency maintenance. Consistency maintenance methods update files without considering file replication dynamism which may not give the accuracy of replica consistency. Instead of passively accepting replicas and update messages, we develop a mechanism which combines both file replication and consistency maintenance. This mechanism is very efficient in file replication and consistency maintenance at low cost. In this mechanism, accepting replicas and updates is based on file query rate and update rate. Peer-to-Peer architectures for content and knowledge management foster the creation of communities of workers in which effective knowledge and information sharing takes place. In such communities, workers have similar capabilities in providing other workers with data and/or services and are autonomous in managing their own knowledge objects. Since objects are typically shared among a set of workers, problems regarding concurrent access to content, content consistency and synchronization of peers arise. This paper describes a hybrid architecture for the management of data consistency and peer synchronization. The designed framework combines centralized, yet dynamic, mechanisms for metadata management and peer-to-peer mechanisms for data transfer.
Keywords— P2P, File replication, consistency maintenance.

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11. New Process Model: Yes Confident Software Development Process Model
S.Thulasi Krishna, K. Rajesh Kumar Reddy

An overview of the more common system development process models used to guide the system analysis, design development and maintenance of information. Generally we have many different techniques and methods used to software development life cycle. Project and most real word models are customized adaptations of the generic models while each is  designed for a specific purpose or reason, most have similar goals and share many common tasks. This paper will explore the similarities and difference among these various models and also discovery new process models.

Index Terms- process model, Rup, and v process model,  B&F model, F-model.

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12.. Multicasting through Hop-by-Hop Routing Protocol Using Modified Recursive Unicast
U.Raghunath Reddy, K.Sekhar, P.Prabhavathi

IP Multicast is a hotly debated topic since many years. For this many reasons are responsible. Hence, the Internet is likely to be organized with both unicast and multicast enabled networks. Thus, it is of utmost importance to design protocols that allow the progressive deployment of the multicast service by supporting unicast clouds. This paper proposes HBH (Hop-By-Hop multicast routing protocol) which uses modified recursive unicast approach for Multicasting. HBH adopts the channel abstraction to simplify address allocation and implements data distribution using recursive unicast trees, which allow the transparent support of unicast only routers. Additionally, HBH is original because its tree construction algorithm takes into account the unicast routing asymmetries.  As most multicast routing protocols rely on the unicast infrastructure, these asymmetries impact the structure of the multicast trees. HBH outperforms other multicast routing protocols in terms of the delay experienced by the receivers and the bandwidth consumption of the multicast trees.
Keywords: Multicast, Unicast , Incremental Service Deployment , Routing .

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13. New Aggregation Operator for Triangular Fuzzy Numbers based on the Arithmetic Means of the L- and R- Apex Angles
Manju Pandey, Nilay Khare, S.C. Shrivastava

In this paper a new aggregation operator for a class of LR Fuzzy Numbers i.e., Triangular Fuzzy Numbers (TFNs) in which the L- and R- apex angles of the piecewise continuous linear membership function of the composite or resultant or aggregate TFN are the arithmetic means of the corresponding L- and R- apex angles of the individual TFNs is proposed. The L- and R- apex angles have been treated independently. Computation of the aggregate is demonstrated with a numerical example. Corresponding arithmetic and geometric aggregates have also been computed.

Keywords— LR Fuzzy Number, Triangular Fuzzy Number, Apex Angle, L-Apex Angle, R-Apex Angle, Aggregation Operator, Arithmetic and Geometric Mean

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14. Non Linear Programming Computation Outsourcing in the Cloud
Bhavsingh Maloth, Juveriah Suman, G.Saritha, A.Chandrasekhar

Cloud Computing is termed with great potential in providing robust computational power to the society at low cost. This enables customers with limited computational resources to outsource the large computation workloads to the cloud, and to enjoy massive computational power, bandwidth, and storage economically. Connecting the cloud to an intrinsically insecure computing platform from the viewpoint of the cloud customers, must model mechanisms not only protect sensitive information by enabling computations with secured encrypted data, but also protect customers against malicious behaviors by including the validation of the computation result. Such a functionality of general secure computation outsourcing was shown to be feasible in theory recently, but to design mechanisms that are practical efficient remains a very challenging problem. Nonlinear programming problems are in more general difficult than linear programming problems, and often hence the way out found is only a local optimum. The way out methods for nonlinear programming models varies, which can result to different nonlinear solvers giving different local optima for to same problem.
This application with multiple objective optimization techniques based on the methods of nonlinear goal programming in performing optimal synthesis of general planar mechanisms is presented. This optimization technique and the objectives of the design problem are first identified and prioritized according to their relative importance value. The mechanism analysis is performed to identify the design variables and the relationships to the dependent variables. The nonlinear goal programming technique is exploitd to determine the optimal values for the design variables that best satisfy the desired objectives of the problem. Uniqueness of this optimization technique lies in its ability to include all its objectives directly in the optimization process. So this method eliminates the need to identify a single objective for the purpose of optimization. Multiple illustrative mechanism synthesis problems with multiple objectives studied for optimal way outs using the nonlinear goal programming technique and the method produced accurate and acceptable way outs. This application of method to three typical industrial type mechanism synthesis problems is presented.
Keywords: Linear Programming, Non Linear Programing,Affine mapping,Duality theorem ,

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15.. Discrete Keyword Search in Cloud Computing over Attribute Based Encryption
Bhavsingh Maloth,K.Pavan Kumar , G.Nirusha, C.Vijaya Mohan


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16. Energy-Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks to Improve the LIfe Time of Sensor Nodes
B.Sunil KUmar, S.Naisha Sultana, B.Khader Hussain. K.Puneeth

Energy-efficient routing is a critical problem in multihop WSN due to the severe power consumption of wireless nodes, the research on routing algorithm is pivotal in the architecture of WSN. This paper analyzes the implementation and existing issues in LEACH. Specifically for node energy and the network lifetime, it proposes an energyefficient routing algorithm based on cycle-switching cluster head. It improves node energy efficiency, balances energy consumption of all sensor nodes, enhances reliability of data transmission and increase network lifetime in comparison to LEACH. Simulation results showed that the algorithm is efficient. Moreover, the protocol increases the balance of energy dissipation, scalability and reliability of WSN.

Keywords: routing protocol; clustering; network lifetime; minimum cost

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17. An Algorithm for Mining Frequent Itemsets
K.Jothimani, S.Antony Selvadoss Thanmani

The problem of mining frequent itemsets in streaming data has attracted a lot of attention lately. Even though numerous frequent itemsets mining algorithms have been developed over the past decade, new solutions for handling stream data are still required due to the continuous, unbounded, and ordered sequence of data elements generated at a rapid rate in a data stream. The main challenge in data streams will be constrained by limited resources of time, memory, and sample size. Data mining has traditionally been performed over static datasets, where data mining algorithms can afford to read the input data several times. The goal of this article is to analyze the factors for mining frequent itemsets in theoretical manner. By comparing previous algorithms we propose new method using analytical modelling to determine the factors over data streams.

Keywords— Data Mining, Data Streams Frequent Itemset Mining, Sliding Window.

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18. Improving QoS in 3G Wireless Mobile N/W Using Call Admission Control Scheme
V.S.Kolate, B.S.Sonawane, A.S.Bhinde

Call admission control schemes play more important role in wireless cellular networks. They are used for achieving some desired quality of service parameters. The design of call admission control algorithms for mobile cellular networks is especially challenging given the limited and highly variable resources, and the mobility of users encountered in such networks. This paper discusses different schemes for providing Quality of Service (QoS) in cellular networks.
This paper provides a survey of admission control schemes & Handoff Prioritization for cellular networks and the research in this area. Our goal is to provide a broad classification and thorough discussion of existing call admission control schemes. We describe several admission control schemes. Handoff is an essential element of cellular communications. Handoff prioritization is the common characteristic of these schemes.
Key words- Call admission control schemes Quality of Service,Handoff

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19. Impulsive Stabilization of a Class of Stochastic Functional Differential Equations with Time Delays
H.X.Yao, Y.W.LI

This paper investigates the pth moment globally uniformly exponential stability of a class of impulsive stabilization of stochastic delay differential equations,and the pth moment exponential stability criteria is established by using theLyapunov–Razumikhin method.

Keywords—Stochastic delay differential equations; Exponential stability;Lyapunov-Razumikhin method;Impulsive control

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20. Empirical Analysis of the Relation to Output, Money Supply and Inflation
H.X.Yao,, Juan-juan Huang

The central bank needs to predict the macroeconomic conditions in the future when it makes a new monetary policy. Namely, we make the optimal monetary policy with a comprehensive analysis on the domestic output, money supply and inflation rate. This article selects the datum of the National Bureau of Statistics of China, the People's Bank of China, and the Customs Statistics Information Network as the sample data for analysis and study .It is found that the estimation of the nominal output and the rate of inflation by FM model among the four kinds of variable structure model—Polynomial model、WG model, RS model and FM model is most consistent with the actual situation. At last, it is verified that a condition of opening Taylor rules doesn’t accord with China's national conditions which is based on the Vensim.
Keywords: Inflation rate;Taylor rules;Money supply; Variable structure

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