Volume 2 Issue 4- April 2012


S.No Title Page
1. The M/M/c Queue with Setup Times and Single Working Vacations of Partial servers
Hongyang XU,Yijun Zhu

In this paper, we investigate an M/M/c queue with single working vacations of partial servers and setup times. During the vacation period, some of which servers are not entirely stop the service but service the new customers at a lower service rate, the other servers have a normal vacation and stop the service. Quasi-birth-and-death-process and infinitesimal generators for the process are obtained from the model that has been described. The steady-state distributions of queue length and some system characteristics are obtained by using matrixgeometric solution method.
Keywords— Multi-server queue, set-up time, partial working vacations, quasi birth and death process, matrix-geometric solution, conditional stochastic decompositions.

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2. Detecting Anomalies present in Brain MRI
Khushboo Singh, Satya Verma

A brain tumor is a mass of unnecessary cells growing in the brain. Brain tissue classification from magnetic resonance images (MRI) is of great importance for research and clinical studies of the normal and diseased human brain. In just a few decades, the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners has grown enormously. An MRI scan is the best way to see inside the human body without cutting it open. It uses strong magnetic fields and non-ionizing radiation in the radio frequency range. Brain tumor effects may not be the same for each. Brain tumors can have a variety of shapes and sizes person.
In This Paper, We have take two dimension MRI jpeg image, then Normalized cut segmentation is performed on it after that we get three different images. First one is colour image for separating different parts of images. If any anomalies are present in the brain then it should be seen   also. Second one is image noise must be removed from the image. And last part is edges are detected from image after that we are taking the color image and converting those images into matrix format. Then we get some vector value on the basis of that vector value classification must be performed by using the approach of ANN.
Key Words— Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI), Brain Tumor Detection, brain MRI classification, Artificial Neural Network  (ANN), Normalized cut segmentation

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3. A Method of Detection and Classifying the Vehicle
B. Uppalaiah, K. Ankalarao, T. Charan Singh

Vehicle Class is an important parameter in road traffic management. With the help of vehicle classification the computation of percentage of state-aid streets, highways become simpler and it is also used in automated toll bridges. In this paper we classify the vehicles into three main broad categories: A) Light vehicle B) Medium Vehicle C) Heavy Vehicle. Firstly, the image pre-processing is done with the gray-scale conversion and filtering of the image. Then with the help of fuzzy logic based novel edge detection technique we detect the edges to get the shape and size of the vehicle and classify the vehicle.

Keywords— Edge Detection, Median Filter, Fuzzy Logic.

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4. Data Mining on Moving Object Trajectories
Sonal Athavale, Neelabh Sao

Trajectory means a path followed by a moving vehicles or object. Spatio temporal clustering is a process of grouping objects based on their spatial or temporal similarity. It is also known as Trajectory or mobility data. Existing work have mainly focused on moving object is completely based on clustering algorithms which only gives us that at any particular time how many vehicles are present at any particular location, but it does not generate any useful patterns.
In this project we deal with the analysis, pre processing and modeling of traffic data in moving object database for traffic management system. And we are using clustering techniques after that we are classifying our data set to generate useful patterns using C 4.5 Algorithm.
In clustering we are using Incremental DBSCAN algorithms because as we know moving data always gets updated these data are dynamic in nature.
Keywords: Trajectory, Spatio temporal clustering, C 4.5 Algorithm, Incremental DBSCAN, Moving Object.

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5. Excogitating File Replication and Consistency maintenance strategies intended for Providing High Performance at low Cost in Peer-to-Peer Networks
Bollimuntha Kishore Babu, Divya Vadlamudi, Movva N.V Kiran Babu ,M.Hema Madhuri

P2P is a trendy technology used for file sharing. File replication and Consistency maintenance are the methods used in P2P for elevated system performance. File replication methods indicate replica nodes without thinking about consistency maintenance which may lead to high overhead for redundant file replications and consistency maintenance. Consistency maintenance methods update files without considering file replication dynamism which may not give the accuracy of replica consistency. Hence there is a need to think about consistency maintenance while file replication to achieve high performance and high availability. When data files are replicated at many nodes, consistency must be maintained among the nodes. In this paper we point out different replication strategies that are applied P2P systems, followed by consistency maintenance techniques intended for high performance and high availability of data. Finally we explore a combined method of file replication and consistency maintenance.

Keywords— peer to peer system, file replication, Consistency maintenance.


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6. An Analysis on Cloud Data Storage
M. Sudha and C. Balakrishnan

Cloud data storage refers to storing data to an off-site storage system maintained by a third party. Instead of storing information to your computer's hard drive or other local storage device, you save it to a remote database. The internet provides the connection between your computer and the database. Cloud storage reduces hardware and software demands on the user’s side. Accessing and storing data on cloud storage has some security risks and thus makes the cloud information inconsistent and unreliable. This paper compares the traditional data storage and cloud data storage and provides few ways to protect the data stored in the cloud. To make data in the cloud a reliable one, some auditing mechanism should be used. This auditing can be performed by a third party system which lies between cloud users and cloud data storage. Third party auditor stores the log information of all files which are accessed from cloud storage and thus assures cloud storage correctness.
Keywords - Cloud data storage, local storage, third party auditor, traditional storage.

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7. Affordable Quantum Cryptography System for Mobile Devices
Rita Pizzi, Danilo Rossetti, Davide D’Arenzo

The today’s technology allows us to design simple quantum cryptography circuits embeddable in mobile devices to ensure the maximum security in money transfer and controlled access. It is known that the quantum cryptography protocols allow a virtually perfectly secure key generation and exchange process. This technology uses the quantum property which states that orthogonally polarized states can be completely discriminated, thus can be used to codify information.
The system presented in this paper adopts a properly costumized BB84 protocol. The hardware instrumentation includes two fast PCs with acquisition card, a 4-channels transmitter, 4 high-efficiency LED diodes, a receiver with 4 highsensitivity photodiodes, and suitable optic devices.
Transmitter and receiver consist of two custom electronic cards with suitable software for random bit generation and decoding procedures The software also allows to reconstruct the shared secure key. The system has been realized with the purpose to be included in mobile devices and to allow each one to afford the quantum cryptography security level, both for ATM operations and e-commerce transactions.

Keywords— Quantum cryptography, BB84, secure key


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8. Analysis of Streaming Services and Security Issues in Peer-To-Peer Network
M.R. Nithya , R.Geetha

A P2P network is a special type of computer network that exhibits self-organization, symmetric communication, and distributed control. P2P streaming systems can be classified into P2P live streaming systems and P2P VoD systems. P2P live streaming systems can be categorized into tree-based P2P live streaming systems and mesh-based P2P live streaming systems. VoD services allow users to watch any point of video at any time. Depending on the forwarding approaches, P2P VoD systems can be categorized into: 1) buffer-forwarding systems, 2) storage-forwarding systems, and 3) hybrid-forwarding systems. Next, we examine different ways that P2P networks are often attacked, including denying services, contaminating the network, and compromising personal information of the peers. Finally, we analysis the security issues that occur in the underlying p2p routing protocols, as well as trust issues in p2p applications.

KeywordsPeer-to-Peer, Video On Demand (VoD), Live Streaming, Tree based streaming, Mesh Based Streaming, Throughput maximization.

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9. Computable Analysis of the Solution of the Nonlinear Kawahara Equation
Dianchen Lu, Jiaxin Guo

In this paper, we study the computability of the solution operator of the initial problem for the nonlinear Kawahara equation, which is based on the Type-2 Turing machines. We will prove that in Sobolev space, for, the solution operator

is -computable. The conclusion enriches the theory of computability.
Key wordsthe nonlinear Kawahara equation, initial problem, computability, Type-2 theory of effectivity (TTE), Sobolev space

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10. Agent-Based Data Mining In Mobile Commerce: An Overview
J.Nithya, R.Geetha

Data mining technology has emerged as a means for identifying patterns and trends from large quantities of data.  The Data Mining technology normally adopts data integration method to generate Data warehouse, on which to gather all data into a central site, and then run an algorithm against that data to extract the useful Module Prediction and knowledge evaluation.  Recommendation systems apply statistical and knowledge discovery techniques to the problem of making product recommendations and they are achieving widespread success in M-Commerce these days.  We view agents as pieces of code that undertake tasks on behalf of a user of the system. In this paper Agents will do recommendation using Data mining techniques in the context of Mobile Commerce.   Recommendations engines are increasingly becoming a popular choice for solving the problem of content discovery enabling the user to find personally relevant content that they might unknown.

Keywords: Mobile commerce, Agents, Agent Based recommendation.    

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11. Asymptotic Behavior of the Global Solution for a Singularly Perturbed KdV Equation with Initial Value
Dianchen lu,Zongxue Kang

Making use of Fourier techniques, this paper deals with the global solution of  a singularly perturbed KdV equation with initial value. Under certain assumption,  The existence and uniqueness of the global solution to the singularly perturbed KdV equation is gained in Sobolev space.And the long time asymptotic behaviour of the form a approximation solution is discussed.

Key wordsKdV equation; initial value problem; global solution; asymptotic solution.
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12. Identification of Normal ECG Signal Using Wavelet Detection
I Dewa Gede Hari Wisana,Thomas Sri Widodo,Mochammad Sja'bani ,Adhi Susanto

In this paper, the wavelet method used for detecting an electrocardiogram signal is the detection of a new wavelet. Wavelet detection method is based on the modification of existing wavelet mother. Specific form of the electrocardiogram signal which gives angle, amplitude, phase and certain frequency is used as the basis of new wavelet formation. Algorithm DeGeNorm is a new algorithm to detect normal wave electrocardiogram signal. The advantage of using this algorithm DeGeNorm is reducing the sensitivity to noise compared to other techniques, with the determination of each component of P, Q, R, S, T wave of the electrocardiogram accurately and quickly. The originality of this study was applied to normal electrocardiogram wave, with varying leads and it is analyzed for each component of its electrocardiogram signal.The results show the effectiveness of wavelet DeGeNorm algorithm utility to detect normal electrocardiogram wave for 6 lead electrocardiogram. With the value of auc=0.998 by using Receiver Operating Charactheristic (ROC) curve.

Keywords :Electrordiogram, Wavelet Detection, QRS Detection
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13. Rivet on Disseminated Problem Solving Techniques in Airtraffic Flow Management
M.Hema Madhuri, Divya Vadlamudi, , Movva N.V Kiran Babu, Anusha Kurra

Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and in the air. The primary purpose of ATC systems worldwide is to separate aircraft to prevent collisions, to organize and expedite the flow of traffic, and to provide information and other support for pilots when able. The geographical and functional distribution and the highly dynamic nature of air traffic control (ATC) make it an ideal candidate with many potential applications that can be modeled in distributed environment, but they increased the complexity of the systems. Hence it leads to some difficulties in problem solving ATC.In this paper we adress those problem solving difficulties.Finally we discuss some problem solving techniques that can overcome these difficulties based in Agent technology.

Key words: Air traffic control, ATC management, Agents
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14. Text Extraction from Images
Paraag Agrawal, Rohit Varma

Automatic image annotation, structuring of images, content-based information indexing and retrieval are based on the textual data present in those images. Text extraction from images is an extremely difficult and challenging job due to the variations in the text such as text scripts, style, font, size, color, alignment and orientation; and due to extrinsic factors such as low image contrast (textual) and complex background. However, this is realizable with the integration of the proposed algorithms for each phase of text extraction from images using java libraries and classes. Initially, the pre-processing phase involves gray scaling of the image, removal of noise such as superimposed lines, discontinuities and dots present in the image. Thereafter, the segmentation phase involves the localization of the text in the image and segmentation of each character from the entire word. Lastly, using the neural network pattern matching technique, recognition of the processed and segmented characters is done. Experimental results for a set of static images confirm that the proposed method is effective and robust.
Keywords— Image Pre-processing, Binarization, Localization, Character Segmentation, Neural Networks, Character Recognition.

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15.. Distributed System in Platform Security Using Mobile Agent
B.Sriprathha, S.Muthukumaraswamy

An agent from the client going to migrate to all the current servers which are going to be connected directly or indirectly through wired or wireless network. An agent is a part of a program which is developed in the client and it migrates automatically when a request is generated. The agent carries the query to all the servers which are connected and collect the required data from the entire server which is connected and finally it delivers to the client. When the agent is travelling, both the agent and the data which is carrying should be protected, from the hackers or by the system user’s hacking knowingly or by unknowingly. Using the Ring signature algorithm path is designed and the path can be extended when there is a need for new path in a distributed system. By this procedure the travelling time and the selection can be restricted to reduce the time delay.
Keywords: migrate, agent, hacking, distributed systems

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16. Privacy Preserving and Security Control Method for Statistical Database
S.Udhaya Kumar and N.Partheeban

As organizations increase their reliance on, possibly distributed, information systems for daily business, they become more vulnerable to security breaches even as they gain productivity and efficiency advantages. The availability of huge numbers of databases recording a large variety of information about individuals makes it possible to discover information about specific individuals by simply correlating all the available databases. Suppose a person AA owns a k-anonymous database and needs to determine whether her database, when inserted with a tuple owned by other person BB, is still k-anonymous. A release is considered k-anonymous if the information for each person contained in the release cannot be distinguished from at least k − 1 other persons whose information also appears in the release. Also, if   the access to the database is strictly controlled, for example data are used for certain experiments that need to be maintained confidential. Clearly, allowing AA to directly read the contents of the tuple breaks the privacy of BB (e.g., a patient’s medical record) on the other hand, the confidentiality of the database managed by AA violated once BB has access to the contents of the database. Thus, the problem is to check whether the database inserted with the tuple is still k-anonymous, without letting the two persons AA and BB know the contents of the tuple and the database, respectively. In this paper, we propose two protocols solving this problem on suppression-based and generalization-based k-anonymous and confidential databases. The protocols rely on well-known cryptographic assumptions, and we provide theoretical analyses to proof their soundness and experimental results to illustrate their efficiency.

Keywords---Privacy, Anonymity, Data Management, Secure Computation, Data Confidentiality.

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17. Comparative Analysis of IEEE 802.11b At 2 Mbps &11 Mbpsb
Minal S. Hardas, Amutha JeyaKumar

The IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area standard, WLANs, available in various variants as a/b/g, is one of the most popular wireless standards used in the market today. In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze and compare the variant IEEE 802.11b using a Smart Call Admission and Rate Control, CARC, policy for Quality of Service, QoS, metrics like throughput, end to end delay and Packet Loss Rate at the channel data rate of 2 Mbps and 11 Mbps respectively. The performance is evaluated for a wireless Adhoc network and the simulation results obtained using Network Simulator-2 shows a superior throughput performance for real-time and non real time traffic at 11 Mbps. But the end to end delay metric show rise in values for both traffics at 11 Mbps as compared to 2 Mbps. Packet Loss Rate shows a remarkable performance at 2 Mbps. Thus, the proposed schemes can well support statistical QoS guarantees for voice traffic and maintain stable high throughput for the best effort traffic at the same time.

Keywords- Quality of Service, WLANs, Distributed Coordination Function, IEEE 802.11b.

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18. An Active En-route Filtering Scheme for Secured Data Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks
N.Parashuram, Y.Sanjay sai raj, A.Sagar, B.Uma

In wireless sensor networks, oppugneries can inject false data reports via compromised nodes and launch Denial of Service attacks against legitimate reports. Recently, a number of filtering schemes against false reports have been proposed. However, they either lack strong filtering capacity or cannot support highly dynamic sensor networks very well. Moreover, few of them can deal with Denial of Service (DoS) attacks simultaneously.  Wireless Sensor networks are deprived of high memory requirements, high processing power, and are limited in usage of efficient security mechanisms. They are susceptible to possible node compromise, passive and active attacks. Most of the public key cryptographic techniques are found to be more work prone with the secure exchange of keys, lengthy hash operations with high processing rounds etc. Even though comprehensive surveys are made in disseminating sensor reports securely to the sink, those mechanisms do not provide adequate verification process of reports from source to destination nor do they completely mitigate false report injection attacks and Denial of Service attacks (DoS). Moreover these mechanisms concentrate on hop-by-hop security paradigms leaving end-to-end security at high risk. In this paper we propose a dynamic en-route filtering scheme that addresses security mechanism for data dissemination in wireless sensor networks.  In our scheme, each node has a hash chain of authentication keys used to endorse reports, The proposed work aims at decreasing the attackers malicious intent and activity compared to the existing mechanisms by the responsibility being taken by the cluster heads in finding the attackers within the clusters and marking them as malicious and later intimating to the base station. The legitimacy of the report being forwarded by the cluster head is collectively endorsed by Message authentication codes. We evaluate our mechanism through extensive analysis of relocating the position of malicious nodes in the event area and thereby analyzing its performance through secured data dissemination.

Keywords-Dos Attacks, Wireless Sensor Networks, False Data Reports, Message Authentication Endorse Reports.

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19. Current Design Trends in Intrusion Detection System: A Review on Technologies Implemented by Researchers
Parvathi Devi.Karumanchi , Y.A.Siva Prasad, Navya Dhulipalla

An intrusion detection system (IDS) inspects all inbound and outbound network activity and identifies distrustful patterns that may indicate a network or system attack from someone attempting to break into or compromise a system. With modern advances in network based technology and increased reliability of our everyday life on this technology, assuring reliable operation of network based systems is very important. During recent years, number of attacks on networks has significantly increased and leads to an interest in network intrusion detection among the researchers. This paper provides a review on some current design trends of IDS together with a study on technologies implemented by some researchers in this research area.
Keywords— Intrusion detection, IDS design, False Positive (FP).

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20. Clustering: An Analysis Technique in Data Mining for Health Hazards of High Levels of Fluoride in Potable Water
Balasubramanian.T, Umarani.R

Data Mining is the process of extracting information from large data sets through using algorithms and Techniques drawn from the field of Statistics, Machine Learning and Data Base Management Systems. Traditional data analysis methods often involve manual work and interpretation of data which is slow, expensive and highly subjective. Data Mining, popularly called as Knowledge Discovery in large data, enables firms and organizations to make calculated decisions by assembling, accumulating, analyzing and accessing corporate data. It uses variety of tools like query and reporting tools, analytical processing tools, and Decision Support System. [1]
This article explores data mining techniques in health care.  In particular, it discusses data mining and its application in areas where people are affected severely by using the under- ground drinking water which consist of high levels of fluoride in Krishnagiri District, Tamil Nadu State, India. This paper identifies the risk factors associated with the high level of fluoride content in water, using clustering algorithms and finds meaningful hidden patterns which give meaningful decision making to this socio-economic real world health hazard. [2]
keywords: Data mining, Fluoride affected people, Clustering algorithms, J48. Naïve Bayes, Health hazard.

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21. Dynamic Learning Machine Using Unrestricted Grammar
P. Dinadayalan, Gnanambigai Dinadayalan

This paper shows a Dynamic Network Learning for performing unrestricted grammar trained Recurrent Neural Network and proves the relationship between Recurrent Neural Network and Turing machine. Dynamic Network Learning employs bi-directional neural network which has feedback path from their outputs to the inputs, the response of such network is dynamic. Turing machine is a finite-state machine associated with an external storage. It prevents indefinite lengthy training sessions. The Dynamic Network Learning architecture is a Recurrent Neural Network and its working principle is related to Turing machine structure. This work exhibits how Turing machine recognizes recursive language and it is also elucidated that Dynamic Network Learning is a stable network. 

KeywordsFinite State Machine, Formal languages, Perceptron, Recurrent Neural Network

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22. Intelligent Communicator (Android Application)
Sanil Raut, Tushar Gawande, Yogesh Joshi,Aditya Gulwelkar

Recent years have witnessed a meteoric increase in the adoption of smartphones. Their popularity can be attributed to the incredible functionality and convenience smartphones offered to end users. In fact, existing mobile phones are not simply devices for making phone calls and receiving SMS messages, but powerful communication and entertainment platforms for web surfing, social networking, GPS navigation, etc. Not surprisingly, mobile users are increasingly relying on smartphones to store and handle personal data. Inside the phone, we can find current (or past) geo-location information about the user , phone call logs of placed and received calls, an address book with various contact information, as well as cached emails and photos taken with the built-in camera. This gives rise to need of creating applications for users that are helpful to organize the data on the mobile phones and utilize all the features that are provided efficiently. We have developed an Android Application called Intelligent   Communicator for the purpose of providing a helpful tool to the end user to manage his/hers daily tasks more efficiently. In this paper we are explaining the application that we have built.

Keywords— Android, Intelligent Communicator, Location tracking, Scheduling, Busy message.

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23. Design of Message-Oriented Middleware Based on Social Messenger
I Made Sukarsa, Nyoman Sarasuartha Mahajaya, Gusti Made Arya Sasmita

Message-Oriented Middleware (MOM) is a middleware that provides an effective integration mechanism and flexible for complex data in distributed systems. This article will introduce the MOM and its application in a distributed system processes, the use of PL / SQL in the data integration process thereby increasing the efficiency of message delivery and easy to adapt to the process growing business, and the use of social networks as a medium of communication between site. MOM is designed using the model of point to point, thereby reducing the buildup of a message queue at one point but spread over sites that are connected to expand the distributed system.

Key words: Distributed Systems, Middleware, Message-Oriented Middleware, PL / SQL, yahoo messenger.

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24. Mesh based and Hybrid Multicast Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad hoc Networks: Current state of the art
G.S.Sreedhar, A.Damodaram

Producing multi-hop routing in Multicast routing protocols for Manets under host mobility and bandwidth constraint is critical challenge. Multicast routing plays a significant role in MANETs. In recent years, various multicast routing protocols with distinguishing feature have been newly proposed. In order to provide a comprehensive understanding of these multicast routing protocols designed for MANETs and pave the way for the further research, the current state of the art in development of mesh based and hybrid multicast routing protocols is discussed in detail in this paper.

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25. Keyword based Search Engine for Web Applications Using Lucene and JavaCC
Priyesh Wani, Nikita Shah, Kapil Thombare, Chaitalee Zade

Past Few years IT industry has taken leap towards developing Web based Applications. The need aroused due to increasing globalization. Web applications has revolutionized the way business processes. It provides scalability and extensibility in managing different processes in respective domains. With evolving standard of these web applications some functionalities has become part of that standard, Search Engine being one of them. Organization dealing with large number of clients has to face an overhead of maintaining huge databases. Retrieval of data in that case becomes difficult from developer’s point of view. In this paper we have presented an efficient way of implementing keyword based search engine for an application involving such kind of huge database and demonstrated how indexing using Lucene and parsing using JavaCC combined together can make search faster there by reducing the data retrieval time.
Keywords— Lucene, JavaCC

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26. A Proposed Modified Approach to Corruption Control for TCP in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
Poonam Tomar, Shweta Yadav

Among the two transport layer protocols, TCP is the reliable protocol that performs well in traditional networks where the main reason for packet loss is congestion. Wireless networks also suffer from some losses due to bit errors, hidden terminals etc. In response to all these losses TCP invokes congestion control algorithms. In case of packet losses due to corruption also TCP performs similarly. This is due to its inability to differentiate between congestion and Corruption. Here in this paper we will discuss all these issues and propose a mechanism that takes congestion and corruption conditions and works uniquely in each condition, so that unnecessary retransmissions are avoided. This will be done by varying the window size by calculating a new window.
Keywords— Congestion, Corruption, TCP, Mobile Ad- Hoc network.

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27. Optimization of FIR digital filter using low power MAC
Shraddha S. Borkar, Awani S. Khobragade

In the majority of digital signal processing (DSP) applications the critical operations are the multiplication and accumulation. Multiplier-Accumulator (MAC) unit that consumes low power is always a key to achieve a high performance digital signal processing system. Finite impulse response (FIR) filters are widely used in  various DSP applications.The purpose of this work is, design and implementation of Finite impulse response (FIR) filter using a low power MAC unit with clock gating and pipelining techniques to save power.

Keywords— MAC, Low Power, Glitch Reduction, Clock Gating, Latch Based Design, Pipelining.

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29. Arithmetical Operations in Quaternary System Using VHDL
Snehal B. Sahastrabudhey, K. M. Bogawar

While performing the several arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction and multiplication the speed of modern computers are limited because of carry propagation delay. A carry-free arithmetic operation can be achieved using a higher radix number system such as Quaternary Signed Digit (QSD). In QSD, each digit can be represented by a number from -3 to 3. Using this number system any integer can be represented in multiple ways. With constant or fix delay and less complexity carry free addition, multiplication and other operations can be implemented on large number of digits. This paper deals with the implementation of QSD based arithmetic operations. The designs are simulated and synthesized using VHDL software, Modelsim software is used for simulation.

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30. Reversible Watermarking Method of Digital Images
S.Bhagya Rekha, T Siva Shankar

Basically in comparing two images to see if they were identical was to check the size of each. If they don't match then we know almost immediately that the images are not identical. It would be quicker if I could somehow compare a 'hash' of each image to see if they were identical. As we know, a hash is a unique value of a fixed size representing a large amount of data, in this case our image data. Hashes of two images should match if and only if the corresponding images also match. Small changes to the image result in large unpredictable changes in the hash. In This paper the concept the concept is to takes a byte array of data as an input parameter and produces a 56 bit hash of that data. By computing and then comparing the hash of each image, I would be quickly able to tell if the images were identical or not. The problem would be to convert the image data stored in the GDI+ Bitmap objects to a suitable form, namely a byte array. The main aim of this paper Image Organizing – Explorer style, Image converter, Applying Filters, Implement watermarking.
Keywords-Digital Watermarking, Filters, Image Comparison, Image Conversion

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31. Virtual Backoff Algorithm: An Enhancement to 802.11 Medium-Access Control to Improve the Performance of MANETS
Bhuvaneswari.Rapuru, Y.Neeraja

This paper presents a scheme, called the virtual back- off algorithm (VBA), which is based on the sequencing technique for efficient medium-access control.  The proposed method min- imizes the number of  collisions while reducing the delays that occur during the backoff periods. We present an analytical study on MAC-layer issues, which are very important when accessing a channel over wireless networks. The VBA scheme uses fair distrib- uted mechanisms to access a channel. We introduce a counter at each node to maintain the discipline of the nodes. The performance of the  proposed method is evaluated under various conditions, and the obtained results are very promising. The enhanced pro- tocol  improves  the  utilization of  bandwidth  by  increasing  the throughput up to 75%, and the amount of collisions is reduced to65% when compared with legacy protocols. The proposed scheme shows  that the energy requirements  are  minimum due to the limitation on the number of transmissions.
Index    Terms—Channel    access,    distributed    coordination function  (DCF),  medium-access  control   (MAC),  performance evaluation.

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