Volume 1 Issue 6- July 2011


S.No Title Page
1. Multi-Point Relaying based Hybrid Routing Protocol for MANET
P.Srinivasulu N. Kesava Rao D.Venkata Subbaiah V.Bharani

This paper describes the design and performance of a routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. Our routing protocol is named “Hybrid Routing” in that it attempts to take advantage of both proactive and reactive approaches. The protocol is based on the concept of multipoint relaying (MPR) to minimize flooding traffic. For most applications over mobile ad-hoc networks, it is expected that a major portion of communication will be done in the two-hop region. Therefore, when a node needs a route to a destination in the two-hop region, it consults with the routing table as the proactive approach to find the route directly. Outside this region, on the other hand, it discovers a route on demand as the reactive approach through the use of MPR flooding. The proposed protocol has been validated using the ns network simulator with wireless and mobility extensions. The simulation results show that our MPR-HR protocol provides higher efficiency in terms of routing overhead compared to AODV, one of the most efficient routing protocols released for mobile ad-hoc networks.

Keywords—AODV, MPR, RUPD, Hybrid Routing
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2. The Journey from Computer Time-Sharing to Cloud Computing: A Literature Review
Dr.Rao Nemani

Cloud computing has attracted the attention of many computing professionals in both the commercial and the educational sectors. Constant pressure to deliver on-demand computing services in a 24/7 environment amidst increasing financial pressure has placed cloud computing out of the realm of just hype and into the business plan of major organizations. As computing gets more sophisticated, it also gets more retro because we see more of the computing functions being pushed to centralized, shared web servers, whether it's called hosted applications or application services or web computing or web caches, it looks more like the time-sharing and centralized computing of the 1970s. The aim of this paper is to conduct a comprehensive review of literature covering the topics of time-sharing and the cloud computing.

Keywords— Cloud Computing, Time-Sharing, Computer Time Sharing, Centralized Computing, Cloud Computer Sharing.

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3. An Adaptive Modular Approach to the Mining of Sensor Network Data
Ankit Vyas,Prof.S.K.Satpathy

This paper proposes a two-layer modular architecture to adaptively perform data mining tasks in large sensor networks. The architecture consists in a lower layer which performs data aggregation in a modular fashion and in an upper layer which employs an adaptive local learning technique to extract a prediction model from the aggregated information. The rationale of the approach is that a modular aggregation of sensor data can serve jointly two purposes: first, the organization of sensors in clusters, then reducing the communication effort, second, the dimensionality reduction of the data mining task, then improving the accuracy of the sensing task.

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4. Space-time Turbo Codes with Adaptive Beamforming for MIMO-OFDM : Performance Analysis & Evaluation
TSuchita Varade, Kishore Kulat

This paper proposes a MIMO-OFDM system with adaptive beamforming algorithm for smart antenna. Performance analysis of the combined scheme is presented using optimum turbo codes with transmit diversity on AWGN channel. The performance of the proposed system is tested for various modulation techniques such as BPSK, QPSK, 16-PSK& 256-PSK.Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has good ability of suppressing interference and significantly improves the bit-error rate (BER).Experimental results show that an adaptive beamforming gives the optimum performance on AWGN channels. Graphical User Interface has also been developed to automate the task of simulation that presents the result in a systematic manner.

Keywords-LMS (least mean squares), space-time turbo code (STTC), spatial diversity, transmit diversity

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5. A Fuzzy-AHP Approach to Solve Multi Criteria Budget Allocation Problem
Manish Arora, M. Syamala Devi

Decision-making problems require systematic approach to evaluate alternatives using both quantitative and non-quantitative factors. Standard methods to solve problems lack considerations of non-quantitative factors, in which numeric value is difficult to assign. Different techniques like Fuzzy set theory, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) are presently being used in decision-making process. These techniques take multiple factors with vague values and /or concrete values. This paper provides solution to a decision-making problem of budget allocation problem, to allocate funds to deserving and competing organizations by using integrated Fuzzy, AHP and MCDM techniques. In budget allocation problem, fund seekers submit their proposals to avail funds to fund allocator to execute their projects. Fund allocators allocate funds to fund seekers after evaluating their proposals. During evaluation, 12 decision-making factors are considered and these are given weights. Weights are calculated using Fuzzy set theory and AHP. Fuzzy set takes subjective values like preferred, strongly preferred etc. and AHP technique evaluates relative importance of factors by forming pairwise comparison matrix. Experts in this domain were consulted to give their preferences through questionnaire. The technique of evaluating proposals helped in ranking after assigning weights to decision-making factors.

Keywords - AHP, MCDM, Fuzzy, Budget Allocation


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6. A Novel Approach Share Key Refreshing for Long Term Protection in Distributed Cryptography by Proactive Security
Rajkumari Retoliya , Prof. Anshu Tripathi

Security is an important issue for networks, especially for those security-sensitive applications. In the entire environment of security, it is necessary to ensure privacy. This Paper provides share key refreshing technique for maintaining the security of the system, even when some nodes are in control of attacker. It provides an automated recovery of the security of individual components, avoiding the use of expensive and inconvenient manual processes. The technique can be used with threshold cryptography, by providing periodic refreshments of the sensitive data held by the servers. This way, the proactive approach guarantees uninterrupted security as long as not too many servers are broken into at the same time. In this paper a solution is provided to enhance security among communication channel. Towards this a share key refreshing technique is represented in the form of algorithm in which some trusted nodes share the private key, which is a part of private-public key pair. It is distributed on some trusted systems according to threshold cryptography. Now once shares are distributed they must be refreshed otherwise attacker can easily obtain those shares and generate the key. Once shares are distributed they must be refreshed after some period of time. We also present implementation details for this scheme.

Keywords— ThresholdCryptography, Proactive Security, Attacks, Secret sharing, Distributed Cryptography, Share Refreshment.

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7. Optimization techniques for Digital / DSP circuits
N. Nithyakalyani, B. Bala Tripura Sundari, S.R. Ramesh

 The fast pace of growth of the semiconductor industry has been both a blessing and as well as a biggest challenge to its future. The increase in the number of transistors that can be packed in a single wafer is expected to come to a standstill by 2020. Therefore large number of researches is going on to exploit science in such a way so that we bring out newer and efficient designs with the existing technology. The need for optimization of designs in terms of speed, power or area is the most looked upon field. We present in this paper few techniques which when used in combination has been already proved to give area and speed optimized designs. The techniques presented are 1) Compressor tree using Carry save adders and 2) Common Subexpression Elimination. The large scattering of logic operations over the arithmetic operations is the main target for applying Compressor tree after a series of Rewriting and Sorting rules. Common Subexpression Elimination involves identification of redundant terms in expressions and careful restructuring of resources. So far the above Optimization algorithms have been implemented for FIR filters and few benchmarks. We have presented a systematic analysis after comparison of the above methods with conventional methods. FIR filters with different orders were taken and Common Subexpression Elimination method was implemented on them. The efficiency of the method is brought out. Appropriate benchmark circuits were chosen for implementing Compressor tree technique. The comparison of these methods with their conventional mechanisms is presented.
Keywords – Carry save adders, compressor trees, Three-greedy technique, Common Subexpression Elimination, Horizontal Common Subexpression Elimination, Vertical Common Subexpression Elimination.

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8. Clustering the Labeled and Unlabeled Datasets using New MST based Divide and Conquer Technique
Srinivasulu Asadi, Dr.Ch.D.V.Subba Rao, V.Saikrishna and Bhudevi Aasadi

Clustering is the process of partitioning the data set into subsets called clusters, so that the data in each subset share some properties in common. Clustering is an important tool to explore the hidden structures of modern large Databases. Because of the huge variety of the problems and data distributions, different classical clustering algorithms, such as hierarchical, partitional, density-based and model-based clustering approaches, have been developed and no techniques are completely satisfactory for all the cases. Sufficient empirical evidences have shown that a New Minimum Spanning Tree (NMST) representation is quite invariant to the detailed geometric changes in cluster boundaries. Therefore, the shape of a cluster has little impact on the performance of MST - based clustering algorithms, which allows us to overcome many of the problems faced by the classical clustering algorithms. NMST - based clustering algorithms also have the ability to detect clusters with irregular boundaries and so they are being widely used in practice. In these MST - based clustering algorithms, search for nearest neighbour is to be done in the construction of NMST. This search is the main source of computation and the standard solutions take O(N2) time. In our paper, we present a fast minimum spanning tree-inspired clustering algorithm. This algorithm uses an efficient implementation of the cut and the cycle property of the NMST, that can have much better performance than O(N2) time.

General Terms: Data Mining, Image Processing, Artificial Intelligence, Graph Theory and Design Analysis of Algorithms.

Keywords — Clustering, Minimum Spanning Tree, Kruskal’s algorithm, Prim’s algorithm , K-Means Clustering, C-Means Clustering, Divisive Hierarchical Clustering.

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9. Using VIKOR Method for Evaluating Service Quality of Online Auction under Fuzzy Environment
Chien-Hua Wang , Chin-Tzong Pang

Most decision making problems can be considered as multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) problems, and should be solved by MCDM method. The main advantage of MCDM is that it can give managers many dimensions to consider related elements, and evaluate all possible options under variable degrees. This paper applied fuzzy set theory and a compromised MCDM method - VIKOR method to evaluate the service quality of online auction. However, service quality is a composite of various attributes, among them many intangible attributes are difficult to measure. Thus, we invite fuzzy set theory into the measurement of performance. By applying AHP in obtaining criteria weight and VIKOR in ranking, we found the most concerned dimension of service quality is Transaction Safety Mechanism and the least is Charge Item. Other criteria such as information security, accuracy and information are too vital. And the online auction A is the best of the three online auctions.
Keywords— MCDM, Fuzzy Set Theory, VIKOR, Online auction,Service quality

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10. Boiler Flow Control Using PID and Fuzzy Logic Controller
Rahul Malhotra, Rajinder Sodhi

Conventional Proportional Integral Controllers are used in many industrial applications due to their simplicity and robustness. The parameters of the various industrial processes are subjected to change due to change in the environment. These parameters may be categorized as steam, pressure, temperature of the industrial machinery in use. Various process control techniques are being developed to control these variables. In this paper, the steam flow parameters of a boiler are controlled using conventional PID controller and then optimized using fuzzy logic controller. The comparative results show the better results when fuzzy logic controller is used. Maximum overshoot for fuzzy logic controller is measured as 9.35% as compared with 47.3% given by conventional PID controller. Settling time for fuzzy logic controller and PID controller is measured at 7.18 seconds and 10.14 seconds respectively, which shows the superiority of fuzzy logic controller.

Keywords: boiler, fuzzy logic controller, PID controller.

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11. Scenario Based Performance Evaluation of DSR and AODV Routing Protocols
P.Kuppusamy, Dr.K.Thirunavukkarasu , Dr.B.Kalaavathi

Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a temporary network with collection of nodes with dynamic infrastructure. It requires efficient routing protocols to provide better data transmission. A number of protocols have been implemented for efficient routing and packet transmission. Some of the protocols have been proposed in the literature based on their characteristics. This research paper presents the evaluation of DSR and AODV on demand routing protocols based on packet delivery ratio, end to end delay with respect to i) Number of CBR nodes ii) Pause Time. The simulation is done using the QualNet 5.0.1 simulator.
Keywords—MANET, AODV, TORA, routing

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12. A Constrained Search Algorithm for Selection of Optimal Generators in Convolutional Enco
Priyadarshini.N, K.Pargunarajan

In this paper, we propose an efficient constrained search method for the selection of optimal combination of generator polynomials in convolutional encoders, for various code rates and constraint lengths. The algorithm is very helpful for finding optimal generators in higher constraint length coders, as it reduces the search space. This plays a vital role in the error performance of the coder.

Keywords— Channel coding, Convolutional codes, Generator polynomials, Optimization, Distance Spectrum.

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13. Image Watermarking- A Review
Shivani Khurana

Watermarking is a relatively an active research field. The invent of internet resulted in new opportunities for the creation and delivery of content in digitized form. Different applications can be included that is electronic advertising, real time video and audio delivery and Web publishing. An important issue that arises in these applications is the protection of the rights. It has been recognized that current copyright laws are not sufficient for dealing with digital data. One technical way is law enforcement and copyright protection for digital media and practical is digital watermarking which is aimed to automatically embed and detect copyright infringement. There has therefore been significant recent research into “watermarking” and “fingerprinting”. The idea is to detect copyright violators, unethical hackers doing cyber crime and the former to prosecute them.

Keywords: Image-watermarking, Video, Copyright, Digital media, Fingerprinting.

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14. Comparative Analysis of AODV and DSR Protocols for Mobile Adhoc Networks
Rahul Malhotra, Sumanpreet Kaur
Mobile Adhoc networks are complex distributed systems comprising of wireless mobile nodes which are self organizing and can move freely into different network topologies. A mobile adhoc network is a collection of nodes that is connected through a wireless medium forming rapidly changing topologies. In past years, different type of routing protocols for Mobile Ad hoc Networks have been developed for devices with higher computing features. This paper compares the performance of the adhoc on-demand distance vector routing protocol with dynamic source routing protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks. This paper focuses on adhoc on-demand distance vector routing protocol and dynamic source routing protocols for packets received and packets lost with variation in number of nodes.
 Keywords: AODV, DSR, Packet received, packets lost, routing protocols, MANETs.
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15. Novel Designs of Reflective Type Phase shifters for Millimeter wave application
Sriyuktha Sasikumar, B. Sabarish Narayanan

Design and Implementation of highly efficient Reflective type phase shifters (RTPS) at 60GHz has been proposed in this work. Low loss cost effective design which utilizes less chip area is proposed. At high frequencies, to improve the efficiency of the communication system highly directional high gain antennas have to be used. Phase shifters are one of the most important elements in phased array antenna system. Phase shifters are used to shift the phase of the input signal. To reduce the losses, instead of passive elements active elements such as active inductors and varactors are used in this work. By using active elements the utilization of chip area can be reduced. Three designs of Reflective type phase shifters with spiral inductor, active inductor and MOS varactor as reflective load are proposed in this work. RTPS with spiral inductor as load has produced a constant phase shift of -830. A variable range of phase shift has achieved for RTPS with active inductor load and MOS varactor load. At 60 GHz path loss is very high due to the small wavelength thus it is necessary to use high gain antenna. Phased array antennas are capable of producing narrow, high gain beams[1] .

Keywords—  Active inductor, Hybrid coupler, Millimeter wave, Reflective type phase shifter, Varactor, 60GHz.

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16. Modeling Nanowire Transistors in a New Framework for Contribution from Spin
Neema Menon.S , Dr. K. A. NarayananKutty

This work concentrates on the mathematical modeling of Nanowire Transistors. Nanowire Transistor’s density of states characteristics were modelled using differential equation approach utilizing Cauchy’s Integral theorem. The spin states were mathematically modelled using multi electron equation and results were closer to practical variation in Voltage-Current characteristics for Silicon nanowires which are presented.

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